Fortunately, there are very few annual weed species in the United States that have shown this level of multiple resistance. Waterhemp is a dioecious species and ideally suited for evolving herbicide resistance by sharing resistance genes among populations and biotypes.
"For example, you can have HPPD resistance evolving in field A, and in adjacent field B you can have selection for glyphosate resistance," Tranel said. "Pollen is always moving in the air, allowing pollen from field A to mix with resistant plants from field B resulting in HPPD and glyphosate resistance in the same progeny. That's how easy it is to stack resistance."
The pressure is on for industry to develop new options and for growers to change their practices of how they use products to control the weed spectrum, he added.
Hager, Tranel and Dean Riechers, a U of I associate professor of herbicide physiology, were recently awarded a grant from Syngenta to study how waterhemp populations evolve resistance. They will collaborate with Syngenta's scientists to find answers regarding the genetics, inheritance, and mechanisms of resistance to HPPD inhibitors.
"We are excited for the opportunity to collaborate with industry to learn more about these resistant biotypes," Tranel said. "We want to find practical management recommendations for growers."
Hager said that there is only so much a person can learn by looking at different treatments in a field, but if this is not done, it's difficult to come up with the best recommendations. The U of I weed science team's advantage is their ability to span the range from applied field and greenhouse work to basic DNA sequencing, physiology and genetics work.
At least two companies are developing crop varieties that are resistant to HPPD inhibitors. In the future, both of these companies see HPPD-inhibiting herbicides growing in importance.
|Contact: Jennifer Shike|
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences