Navigation Links
Wasps use ancient aggression genes to create social groups
Date:2/10/2014

Aggression-causing genes appeared early in animal evolution and have maintained their roles for millions of years and across many species, even though animal aggression today varies widely from territorial fighting to setting up social hierarchies, according to researchers from Iowa State University, Penn State and Grand Valley State University.

If these "mean genes" keep their roles in different animals and in different contexts, then perhaps model organisms -- such as bees and mice -- can provide insights into the biological basis of aggression in all animals, including humans, the researchers said.

"This is one of the first investigations to utilize large datasets consisting of thousands of different genes to ask whether there are shared genes relating to similar forms of behavior across a very wide range of animals," said Amy Toth, assistant professor of ecology, evolution and organismal biology, Iowa State. "Specifically, we looked at aggressive behavior in wasps, bees, fruit flies and mice and found a few genes that are consistently associated with aggression. This suggests that even after hundreds of millions of years of evolution, some genes may retain their ancestral roles in similar forms of behavior, like aggression."

The team investigated the expression of aggression genes in the brains and ovaries of paper wasps -- Polistes metricus. Specifically, they looked at wasps belonging to different castes including dominant colony-founding queens, subordinate colony-founding queens, established queens, dominant workers and subordinate workers. These individuals displayed widely different levels of reproductive dominance and, linked to that, aggressive behavior. The team then compared the wasp results to gene expression data already available in honey bees, fruit flies and mice.

"We found that in wasps, which are primitively social insects, aggression genes control the establishment of an individual's dominance over a group," said Christina Grozinger, professor of entomology and director of the Center for Pollinator Research, Penn State. "In contrast, in honey bees, which are advanced social insects, aggression genes control altruistic defensive behavior -- for example, when guard bees sting a predator or even a beekeeper, and die in the process. In solitary species, like fruit flies and mice, the same set of aggression genes controls fighting between males over territory. So the same genes are involved in aggression across species, but are now being used in different ways by different organisms."

According to Grozinger, the results suggest that model organisms -- such as bees and mice -- can be used to study aggression in humans because they share some of the same genes that regulate aggression behaviors, even if those behaviors are now quite different.

In addition to learning that aggression genes are shared among organisms, the team also found that these genes are extremely sensitive to the external environment.

"We found that the most important influence on expression of genes in the brains of paper wasps was external factors, such as the season and how large the colony was at the time," Toth said. "This indicates the important role of external cues in shaping the molecular processes that regulate behavior."

The results, which appear today (Feb. 10) in BMC Genomics, provide new insight into the debate between nature and nurture, according to Grozinger.

"Everyone agrees that both nature -- including genes and physiology -- and nurture -- including diet, environment and social interactions -- contribute to the likelihood that an individual will behave in a certain way or develop a disease," Grozinger said. "But our results show that the external environment plays a much greater role in regulating expression of genes in the brain, which ultimately regulates behavior, than physiology. This is very surprising."

The scientists plan to use their findings to conduct experiments in which they will manipulate the expression of single genes to see how they affect behavior.

"One thing we would like to investigate is what will happen if we ramp up expression of one of the genes involved in aggression," Toth said. "Can we create hyper-aggressive wasps? This type of question allows us to go beyond correlation between the gene and the behavior and address causation. Does the gene of interest actually cause aggressive behavior?"

Grozinger added, "If there are hyper-aggressive wasps, what effect does that have on wasp society?"


'/>"/>

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Small wasps to control a big pest?
2. Survival of the fittest: Predator wasps breed at the expense of spider juveniles
3. Fossils clarify the origins of wasps and their kin: alderfly ancestors, snakefly cousins
4. 7 new species of nearctic wasps described and illustrated
5. Melting glaciers, enough sand to bury London, and ancient ecosystem engineering
6. Ancient civilizations reveal ways to manage fisheries for sustainability
7. Ancient whale species sheds new light on its modern relatives
8. Ancient Egyptian cotton unveils secrets of domesticated crop evolution
9. Ammonites found mini oases at ancient methane seeps
10. New coelacanth find rewrites history of the ancient fish
11. LSU research finds orangutans host ancient jumping genes
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Wasps use ancient aggression genes to create social groups
(Date:2/22/2017)... , Feb. 22, 2017 With ... 2021, ABI Research identifies four technologies that innovative ... to secure significant share in the changing competitive ... and passive authentication.   "Companies can ... comes to security," says Dimitrios Pavlakis , ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... PORTLAND, Ore. , Feb. 22, 2017 ... Family of Companies (Avamere Health Services, Infinity Rehab, Signature ... research study that will apply the power of IBM ... living and health centers. By analyzing data streaming from ... insights into physical and environmental conditions, and obtain deeper ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... LONDON , February 21, 2017 ... um 70 Millionen US-Dollar wachsen. Nach einem Gespräch mit mehr ... es einige Hindernisse zu überwinden gilt, um diese Prognose ... ... unter anderem die Mobilisierung der finanziellen Mittel für die ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/21/2017)... ... February 21, 2017 , ... ... $200M operational capacity with its strategic internal leadership to provide clients with ... and operational management. With office locations in North Carolina, Massachusetts, Ohio, ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... -- Lexus, a returning partner of the Amgen Tour of California ... partner of the men,s and women,s events for the next five ... Tour of California will mark the start ... professional cycling teams in the world racing from Northern to ... Breakaway from Heart Disease TM Women,s Race empowered with ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global ... 2025" report to their offering. ... The Global Bioplastics & Biopolymers Market is ... next decade to reach approximately $8.9 billion by 2025. ... all the given segments on global as well as regional levels ...
(Date:2/20/2017)... , Feb. 20, 2017 This report analyzes ... the following Product Types: Xylanase, Amylase, Cellulase, and Others. The ... Canada , Japan , ... Latin America , and Rest of World. ... Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2015 ...
Breaking Biology Technology: