A mathematical pattern of movement called a Lvy walk describes the foraging behavior of animals from sharks to honey bees, and now for the first time has been shown to describe human hunter-gatherer movement as well. The study, led by University of Arizona anthropologist David Raichlen, was published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The Lvy walk pattern appears to be ubiquitous in animals, similar to the golden ratio, phi, a mathematical ratio that has been found to describe proportions in plants and animals throughout nature.
"Scientists have been interested in characterizing how animals search for a long time," Raichlen said, "so we decided to look at whether human hunter-gatherers use similar patterns."
Funded by a National Science Foundation grant awarded to study co-author Herman Pontzer, Raichlen and his colleagues worked with the Hadza people of Tanzania.
The Hadza are one of the last big-game hunters in Africa, and one of the last groups on Earth to still forage on foot with traditional methods. "If you want to understand human hunter-gatherer movement, you have to work with a group like the Hadza," Raichlen said.
Members of the tribe wore wristwatches with GPS units that tracked their movement while on hunting or foraging bouts. The GPS data showed that while the Hadza use other movement patterns, the dominant theme of their foraging movements is a Lvy walk the same pattern used by many other animals when hunting or foraging.
"Detecting this pattern among the Hadza, as has been found in several other species, tells us that such patterns are likely the result of general foraging strategies that many species adopt, across a wide variety of contexts," said study co-author Brian Wood, an anthropologist at Yale University who has worked with the Hadza people since 2004.
"This movement pattern seems to occur across species and across environments in humans
|Contact: David Raichlen|
University of Arizona