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Volatile ecosystems, a natural wind tunnel, volcanic lightning, and stress & strain on Venus
Date:12/11/2013

km, radius between 10 and 20 km) and Kunapipi Mons (depth 4-35 km, radius 18-36 km).


Melt migration and melt-rock reactions in the deforming Earth's upper mantle: Experiments at high pressure and temperature

Vincent Soustelle et al., Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany; vincent.soustelle@uni-bayreuth.de. Published online ahead of print on 6 Dec. 2013; http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G34889.1.

This study reports a series of experiments that solve a major issue concerning melt extraction from Earth's mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges and other volcanic provinces. For many years, experimental and theoretical studies have examined how partial melt is squeezed out of the mantle as a result of ductile deformation. These studies have shown that melt segregates into bands inclined at approximately 20 to the principal deformation direction. However natural mantle rocks never record such inclined melt banding; on the contrary they almost always display evidence for melt segregation into bands that are parallel to the principal deformation direction. This has created problems in the interpretation, modeling, and geophysical analysis of melt extraction. In our experimental study, we show that although melt bands do form inclined to the deformation direction; as the melt crystallizes it precipitates minerals, which become aligned parallel to the deformation direction. As natural rocks only record evidence in the form of minerals crystallized from melts, their foliation is an erroneous indication for the direction of the original melt pathway. These results allow the reinterpretation of field evidence for one of the most important mantle processes to affect Earth's surface.


Experimental generation of volcanic lightning

C. Cimarelli et al., Department of Earth and Environment
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Contact: Kea Giles
kgiles@geosociety.org
Geological Society of America
Source:Eurekalert  

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