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Volatile ecosystems, a natural wind tunnel, volcanic lightning, and stress & strain on Venus
Date:12/11/2013

rogabbro develops in the presence of water. In microgabbro, the initial weakening mechanism (flash melting of the asperities) is delayed in the presence of water; conversely, in calcite marble the weakening mechanism (brittle failure of the asperities) is favored. This opposite behavior highlights the importance of host-rock composition in controlling dynamic (frictional) weakening in the presence of water: cohesive carbonate-bearing rocks are more prone to slip in the presence of water, whereas the presence of water might delay or inhibit the rupture nucleation and propagation in cohesive silicate-bearing rocks.


The effects of interannual climate variability on the moraine record

Leif S. Anderson et al., Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, and Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Campus Box 450, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA; leif@colorado.edu. Published online ahead of print on 6 Dec. 2013; http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G34791.1.

In most mountainous regions, reconstructed glacial histories are the primary record of past climate. These histories are typically based on unsorted accumulations of debris (moraines) deposited at the terminus of paleoglaciers. Paleoglacier geometries preserved by moraines are the primary constraint for extracting paleoclimate estimates using equilibrium-line altitudes or glacier models. It is a common assumption that paleoglacier lengths defined by terminal moraines and cirque headwalls were formed by paleoglaciers responding to the mean value of summer temperature and winter precipitation. In reality, glacier termini fluctuate around a mean glacial length even in a constant climate. The furthest terminal moraines from the headwall during the time period of interest represent the maximum excursion of the glacier from the mean glacier length. The mean glacier length actually reflec
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Contact: Kea Giles
kgiles@geosociety.org
Geological Society of America
Source:Eurekalert  

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