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Vitamin D holds promise in battling a deadly breast cancer, Saint Louis University researchers say
Date:1/22/2013

below the cellular level to discover why some people develop cancer, the search often involves tracing a chain of events to try to understand cause and effect of the behavior between several genes and the proteins which they express. In order to understand these complex pathways, researchers often turn levels of proteins on or off by expressing one gene or suppressing another. Part of a researcher's challenge is determining what the function of each component of a pathway is.

The cell employs a complex mechanism to protect genetic information and ensure that damaged DNA is not passed on to daughter cells. Cells have built in checkpoints and fail safes to ensure the accuracy of their DNA code and are able to slow or stop their own proliferation if the information is compromised. Loss of these checkpoints and the accumulation of damaged DNA often leads to cancer.

The Pathway

BRCA1 is a well-established tumor suppressor gene. Women who carry mutations in this gene have a high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. Tumors that arise often lack expression of three receptors: estrogen, progesterone and HER2 (thus, "triple-negative"), and do not respond to hormone therapy.

BRCA1 is important because it is involved in repairing DNA double-strand breaks, a kind of DNA damage that is especially dangerous for the integrity of our genome. BRCA1 also is involved in cell-cycle checkpoints after damage, which are control mechanisms during cell proliferation that make sure the DNA information has been accurately replicated and transferred to the daughter cells. Thus, BRCA1 is considered a safeguard of the genome.

Loss of BRCA1 is bad news for the information contained in a cell's genetic blueprint. It results in genomic instability characterized by unrepaired DNA breaks and chromosomal aberrations that compromise cell viability. How BRCA1-mutated cells are able to form tumors has been a long-standing question. Investigators rec
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Contact: Carrie Bebermeyer
bebermcl@slu.edu
314-977-8015
Saint Louis University
Source:Eurekalert

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