Navigation Links
Viruses evolve to play by host rules, according to University of Pennsylvania researchers
Date:3/3/2008

PHILADELPHIA -- Biologists at the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard University have examined the complete genomes of viruses that infect the bacteria E. coli, P. aeruginosa and L. lactis and have found that many of these viral genomes exhibit codon bias, the tendency to preferentially encode a protein with a particular spelling.

Researchers analyzed patterns of codon usage across 74 bacteriophages using the concept of a "genome landscape," a method of visualizing long-range patterns in a genome sequence.

Their findings extend the translational theory of codon bias to the viral kingdom, demonstrating that the viral genome is selected to obey the preferences of its host.

The host bacterium is exerting a strong evolutionary pressure on the virus, Joshua Plotkin, lead author and assistant professor in the Department of Biology at Penn, said. This happens because a virus must hijack the machinery of its host in order to reproduce. We are seeing that viruses are forced to adopt the particular codon choices preferred by the bacterium they infect.

The study found that each bacterium has a preferred way of spelling its genes. And it appears that viruses that infect a bacterium spell their own genes in the same way the bacterium does, obeying the rules of its host and demonstrating co-evolutionary behavior.

Like a bee and a flower, an example of co-evolution between two large organisms, the same fundamental biological processes operate between two small organisms, as reflected in their genome sequences, Plotkin said.

Moreover, the team found that the degree of codon bias varies across the viral genome. By comparing the observed genomes to randomly drawn genomes, the team demonstrated that the regions of high codon bias in these viral genomes often coincide with regions encoding structural proteins. Thus, the proteins that a virus needs to produce at high levels utilize the same encoding as its host organism does for highly expressed proteins.

Any protein can be encoded by multiple, synonymous spellings, but organisms typically prefer one spelling over others, a phenomenon known as codon bias. Codon bias is generally understood to result from selection for the synonymous spelling that maximizes the rate and accuracy of protein production.


'/>"/>

Contact: Jordan Reese
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Features of replication suggest viruses have common themes, vulnerabilities
2. Gamma globulin effective in treating eye infections caused by adenoviruses
3. Discovery may help defang viruses
4. Prions and retroviruses -- an unholy alliance?
5. Study proposes new theory of how viruses may contribute to cancer
6. Iowa State researchers develop technology for early detection of viruses
7. Yellowstone viruses jump between hot pools
8. Great apes endangered by human viruses
9. The Uukuniemi virus helps to explain the infection mechanism of bunyaviruses
10. MGH researchers describe new way to identify, evolve novel enzymes
11. New molecular clock from LLNL and CDC indicates smallpox evolved earlier than believed
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/3/2016)... 2016 --> --> Fourth ... (105.0), up 1,187% compared with fourth quarter of 2014. Gross ... M (loss: 30.0). Earnings per share increased to SEK 6.39 ... M (neg: 74.7). , --> ... SEK 2,900.5 M (233.6), up 1,142% compared with 2014. Gross ...
(Date:2/3/2016)... , Feb. 3, 2016 ... the addition of the "Emotion Detection ... Machine Learning, and Others), Software Tools (Facial ... Areas, End Users,and Regions - Global forecast ... --> http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/d8zjcd/emotion_detection ) has ...
(Date:2/2/2016)... 2, 2016 Checkpoint Inhibitors for Cancer ... Are you interested in the future of ... checkpoint inhibitors. Visiongain,s report gives those predictions to ... national level. Avoid falling behind in data ... and revenues those emerging cancer therapies can achieve. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/5/2016)... 2016  In the pharmaceutical industry the medical affairs ... launch activities including the identification and engagement of key ... especially high in the oncology therapeutic area where most ... the Role of Medical Affairs in Oncology Launch Excellence ... therapies find better ways to utilize medical affairs to ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... -- Amarantus BioScience Holdings, Inc. ... products for Regenerative Medicine, Neurology and Orphan Diseases, announced ... from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ... granted orphan drug designation (ODD) by the US FDA ... Inc. (OTCQB: AMBS), a biotechnology company ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... ... February 04, 2016 , ... ... compliance training, today announced an interactive FDA compliance training course, ... (Regulatory Affairs Professional Society) accredited interactive course on Morf Playbook—now conveniently available on ...
(Date:2/4/2016)...  Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. (NASDAQ: SGMO ), the ... Edward Lanphier , Sangamo,s president and chief executive officer, ... ZFP Therapeutic ® development programs and an overview ... on Thursday, February 11, 2016, at the Leerink Partners ... is being held in New York ...
Breaking Biology Technology: