To help determine why certain fish ate certain seaweed, the researchers played a trick on the unicornfish. They removed chemicals from each seaweed species that the unicornfish avoided and coated them individually on a species of seaweed that the unicornfish were accustomed to eating. That caused the fish to stop eating the chemical-laced seaweed, suggesting that chemical defenses kept them from consuming some seaweeds.
The researchers also compared the quality of coral reefs in marine protected areas to those in areas where fishing has been allowed. There are an estimated 300 marine protected areas in the Fiji Islands, most governed by local villages that have considerable autonomy over reef management.
Surveying these larger areas, the researchers found strong negative associations between the abundance or diversity of seaweed on the reef and diversity of herbivorous fishes at the sites they studied.
They found that strict rules against fishing in certain protected areas had led to a regeneration of corals, and that the contrast to fished areas nearby some just 500 meters apart was dramatic. The protected reefs supported as much as 11 times more live coral cover, 17 times more herbivorous fish biomass and three times more species diversity among herbivorous fishes as the unprotected areas.
"What we noted in Fiji is that where reefs are fished, they look like the devastated reefs in the Caribbean," said Hay. "There's a lot of seaweed, there's almost no coral and there aren't many fish in these flattened areas. But right next to them, where fishing hasn't been allowed for the past eight or ten years, the reefs have recovered and have high coral cover, almost no seaweed and lots of fish."
Although both fished and protected areas had only seven percent coral cover ten years ago, today the protected areas have recovered.
"This really demonstrates the value of reef protection, even on small
|Contact: John Toon|
Georgia Institute of Technology