Navigation Links
Vaccines to boost immunity where it counts, not just near shot site
Date:1/22/2012

DURHAM, N.C. and SINGAPORE Researchers at Duke University Medical Center have created synthetic nanoparticles that target lymph nodes and greatly boost vaccine responses, said lead author Ashley St. John, Ph.D., a researcher at Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School.

The paper was published online in the journal Nature Materials on Jan. 22.

Currently all other adjuvants (substances added to vaccines to help to boost the immune response) are thought to enhance immunity at the skin site where the vaccine is injected rather than going to the lymph nodes, where the most effective immune reactions occur. The current study used mice to show it is possible to shift the delivery path directly to the lymph nodes.

The researchers based their strategy on their observation that mast cells, which are cells that are found in the skin that fight infections, also communicate directly to the lymph nodes by releasing nanoparticles called granules.

"Our strategy is unique because we have based our bioengineered particles on those naturally produced by mast cells, which effectively solve the same problem we are trying to solve of combating infection," said St. John, who is in the Duke-NUS Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases.

The synthetic granules consist of a carbohydrate backbone that holds tiny, encapsulated inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). These particles, when injected, mimic the attributes of the granules found in natural cells, and the synthetic particles also target the draining lymph nodes and provide for the timed release of the encapsulated material.

Traditional vaccine adjuvants may help antigens (the small part of a pathogen that is injected during vaccination that the body reacts to) to persist so the body can have an immune reaction and build antibodies so that when a real pathogen, such as the flu virus arrives, it will be conquered. Alternatively, adjuvants may activate cells called dendritic cells, which pick up pathogen parts and must travel from the skin to lymph nodes where immune reactions are initiated.

The Duke team, however, has created a vaccine adjuvant of nanoparticles that are capable of traveling from the point of injection to the lymph nodes where they act on many cell types of the immune system to spur the right reaction for a greatly increased immune response.

The researchers found that they could use this adjuvant in vaccinations of mice with the influenza A virus.

In levels of flu virus exposure that would be lethal in typical mice, the vaccinated mice were able to fight off the disease and had an increased survival rate, thanks to the effective immune response the particles stimulated.

The researchers also showed they could load the same type of particles with a different immune factor, IL-12, that directed a response toward a different set of lymphocytes. This is an important finding since certain types of infections require specialized responses to be overpowered by the body.

St. John said the flexibility of the synthetic particles and their ability to target certain lymph nodes represented a new avenue of personalized medical treatment personalized vaccines.

Senior author Soman Abraham, Ph.D., professor of pathology, immunology and molecular genetics and microbiology at Duke in Durham, N.C., and emerging infectious diseases at Duke-NUS, is cautiously optimistic that the mast-cell-inspired synthetic particles could make their way into human use soon.

"It should not be long because all the individual cytokines (immune system factors) and additional materials loaded into these particles are already FDA approved for use in humans," Abraham said. "There is a lot of interest in nanoparticle-based therapy, but we are basing our materials on our observation of mast cells in nature. This is an informed application to deliver the right material to the right place in the body to get the most effective immune reaction."


'/>"/>
Contact: Mary Jane Gore
mary.gore@duke.edu
919-660-1309
Duke University Medical Center
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. BWH researchers develop a vaccine prototype stronger than traditional vaccines
2. 21st century vaccines -- innovation in design and rational use
3. Innovative vaccines with nanotechnology
4. 2020 vision of vaccines for malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS
5. Blame the environment: Why vaccines may be ineffective for some people
6. Cow vaccines go vroom
7. Scientists use computer algorithms to develop seasonal flu vaccines
8. New bacterial signaling molecule could lead to improved vaccines
9. Prescription drug could boost effects of vaccines for HIV and other diseases
10. Vaccines preventing pneumococcal disease protect African children with sickle-cell disease
11. GEN reports on the promise of DNA vaccines
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/13/2017)... SAN FRANCISCO , Feb. 13, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... a centralized platform that is designed to enhance ... the latest release in the RSA Fraud & ... to enable organizations to leverage additional insights from ... anti-fraud tools to better protect their customers from ...
(Date:2/8/2017)... NEW YORK , Feb. 8, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... an individual,s voice to match it against a ... voice such as pitch, cadence, and tone are ... systems require minimal hardware installation, as most PCs ... remotely for different transactions. Voice recognition biometrics are ...
(Date:2/8/2017)... 7, 2017 Report Highlights The ... from $8.3 billion in 2016 at a compound annual ... Report Includes - An overview of the global ... with data from 2015 and 2016, and projections of ... of the market on the basis of product type, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/23/2017)... , Feb. 23, 2017 Aviva Systems ... announced the acquisition of GenWay Biotech Incorporated, a ... service and product offering for both the research ... facilitate growth and enhance capabilities for both entities. GenWay,s ... ELISA assays will nicely complement ASB,s objective to ...
(Date:2/22/2017)... Kan. , Feb. 22, 2017  Aratana Therapeutics, Inc. ... development and commercialization of innovative biopharmaceutical products for companion animals, ... 2017 at 8:30 a.m. ET to discuss financial results from ... Interested participants and investors may access the ... ...
(Date:2/22/2017)...  PrimeVax Immuno-Oncology, Inc. announced today its CEO, ... Biocom Global Life Science Partnering Conference.  The presentation will ... the Torrey Pines Lodge, in San Diego.  ... who have chosen our company, amongst numerous others, to ... and clinical researchers," said Mr. Chen. "In contrast to ...
(Date:2/22/2017)... ... February 22, 2017 , ... ProMIS ... precision treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, today announced it has issued a scientific white ... is one of a series of commentaries from ProMIS’s scientific team offering insight ...
Breaking Biology Technology: