Navigation Links
Vaccine made with synthetic gene protects against deadly pneumonia
Date:2/21/2011

February 22, 2011 (BRONX, NY) Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have developed an experimental vaccine that appears to protect against an increasingly common and particularly deadly form of pneumococcal pneumonia. Details of the new vaccine, which was tested in an animal model, are reported in a paper published today in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Pneumococcal pneumonia can occur when the lungs are infected with the bacterial species Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known as pneumococcus). "Like many microbes that cause pneumonia, pneumococcus is spread from person to person through coughing or sneezing," said principal investigator Liise-anne Pirofski, M.D., professor of medicine and of microbiology & immunology and the Selma and Dr. Jacques Mitrani Chair in Biomedical Research. Symptoms include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases estimates that 175,000 people are hospitalized with pneumococcal pneumonia in the United States each year. In addition to pneumonia, pneumococcus causes 34,500 bloodstream infections and 2,200 cases of meningitis annually. It is responsible for more deaths in the United States 4,800 a year than any other vaccine-preventable disease. It poses a particular problem in the developing world, where it is estimated to cause more than one million deaths in children each year, according to the World Health Organization.

A pediatric vaccine has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal disease in children and adults, both by protecting vaccinated children and by reducing person-to-person transmission of the bacterium to others a phenomenon known as herd immunity.

"The pediatric vaccine is a great victory for modern medicine, but it doesn't cover all strains of disease-causing pneumococcus some of which have recently emerged and are very virulent," said Dr. Pirofski. "This problem, coupled with the fact that herd immunity doesn't protect immunocompromised patients as effectively as people with normal immunity, led us to look for a better vaccine."

The researchers focused on developing a vaccine against serotype 3 a pneumococcal strain that was not included in the pediatric vaccine used for the past decade and that has emerged as a cause of serious pneumonia in adults and children. Serotype 3 can trigger inflammation so overwhelming that it can result in very severe disease or even death.

The goal of this study was to produce a vaccine consisting of a live, attenuated (weakened) version of serotype 3 S. pneumoniae. To create their vaccine, the researchers focused on the serotype 3 gene that codes for pneumolysin, a toxin produced by all pneumococcal strains. The researchers replaced this gene with a synthetic version that they hoped would reduce the amount of toxin produced.

"Our idea was to design a live vaccine that would stimulate the immune system sufficiently to ward off disease but wouldn't lead to the severely damaging inflammatory response that this strain can cause," said lead author J. Robert Coleman, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in microbiology & immunology at Einstein, who helped develop the gene-modification technique, known as synthetic gene customization, while a graduate student at Stony Brook University.

"The novelty of this approach lies in the fact that the gene's expression would be reduced, but not eliminated," Dr. Coleman added. "Previous approaches to genetic regulation of virulence relied on knocking out genes, which eliminates their expression completely."

Altering the pneumolysin gene in the seroptype 3 bacteria resulted in less pneumolysin toxin produced in vitro. When mice were injected with either attenuated or unattenuated serotype 3 bacteria, mice receiving the attenuated strain developed an inflammatory response much weaker than was observed in mice receiving the unattenuated serotype 3 strain. Most important, of the five mice injected with the attenuated strain, four survived a subsequent challenge from the highly virulent unattenuated serotype 3 strain, which was lethal in five of five unvaccinated, control mice.

This method of reducing gene expression had been used for viral pathogens, but this is the first time that gene customization has successfully controlled virulence in bacteria. The study's findings could potentially lead to pneumococcal vaccines based on weakened strains, and the Einstein researchers are now investigating whether they can reduce the expression of other genes associated with pneumococcal virulence.


'/>"/>

Contact: Kim Newman
sciencenews@einstein.yu.edu
718-430-3101
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Media advisory -- Partnering to Fight TB: The Role of a TB Vaccine PDP
2. Saint Louis University findings: Dont pitch stockpiled avian flu vaccine
3. Researchers test inhalable measles vaccine
4. Therapeutic AIDS vaccine designed by HIVACAT reduces the viral load in the majority of AIDS patients
5. H1N1 pandemic points to vaccine strategy for multiple flu strains
6. Team creates novel vaccine that produces strong immunity against cocaine high
7. New vaccine to assist worldwide eradication of polio
8. Experts converge at Arizona State University for first preventive cancer vaccine conference
9. Blame the environment: Why vaccines may be ineffective for some people
10. New needle-free HPV vaccine increases effectiveness, availability in developing world
11. New low-cost method to deliver vaccine shows promise
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/2/2016)... June 2, 2016   The Weather Company , an ... Ads, an industry-first capability in which consumers will be able ... to ask questions via voice or text and receive relevant ... Marketers have long sought an advertising solution ... can be personal, relevant and valuable; and can scale across ...
(Date:5/20/2016)... , May 20, 2016  VoiceIt is excited ... with VoicePass. By working together, VoiceIt ...  Because VoiceIt and VoicePass take slightly different approaches ... increases both security and usability. ... about this new partnership. "This marketing ...
(Date:5/3/2016)... Lithuania , May 3, 2016  Neurotechnology, ... released the MegaMatcher Automated Biometric Identification System ... of large-scale multi-biometric projects. MegaMatcher ABIS can process ... accuracy using any combination of fingerprint, face or ... MegaMatcher SDK and MegaMatcher Accelerator ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... WI (PRWEB) , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... supplements, is pleased to announce the launch of their brand, UP4™ Probiotics, into ... for over 35 years, is proud to add Target to its list of ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016 /PRNewswire/ - FACIT has announced the creation ... biotechnology company, Propellon Therapeutics Inc. ("Propellon" or "the ... a portfolio of first-in-class WDR5 inhibitors for the ... WDR5 represent an exciting class of therapies, possessing ... for cancer patients. Substantial advances have been achieved ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- Houston Methodist Willowbrook Hospital has signed a ... serve as their official health care provider. As ... provide sponsorship support, athletic training services, and most ... athletes and families. "We are excited ... to bring Houston Methodist quality services and programs ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016  The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) is pleased ... and faster cures for prostate cancer. Members of the Class of 2016 were ... Read More About the Class of 2016 PCF Young ... ... ...
Breaking Biology Technology: