Navigation Links
Unlike we thought for 100 years: Molds are able to reproduce sexually

For over 100 years, it was assumed that the penicillin-producing mould fungus Penicillium chrysogenum only reproduced asexually through spores. An international research team led by Prof. Dr. Ulrich Kck and Julia Bhm from the Chair of General and Molecular Botany at the Ruhr-Universitt has now shown for the first time that the fungus also has a sexual cycle, i.e. two "genders". Through sexual reproduction of P. chrysogenum, the researchers generated fungal strains with new biotechnologically relevant properties - such as high penicillin production without the contaminating chrysogenin. The team from Bochum, Gttingen, Nottingham (England), Kundl (Austria) and Sandoz GmbH reports in PNAS. The article will be published in this week's Online Early Edition and was selected as a cover story.

Only penicillin producer

About 100 years ago, Alexander Fleming demonstrated the formation of penicillin in Penicillium chrysogenum. To date, there is no other known producer of the antibiotic penicillin, which has an annual global market value of about six billion Euros.

Combining genes and breeding offspring with new properties

Not only animals and plants, but also many microorganisms such as fungi and algae can reproduce sexually. The advantage: the progenies possess a combination of genes from both mating partners and thus have new properties. Sexual reproduction in fungi is, however, not the rule. Most reproduce via spores which, in the case of moulds, occur as white, green or black deposits on spoiled food. These spores only bear the genes of one parent fungus. "Five years ago we already detected the existence of so-called sex genes in Penicillium chrysogenum", says Prof. Kck. Now, the researchers have discovered specific environmental conditions in which the fungus actually reproduces sexually. The decisive thing was to breed fungal strains in the dark under oxygen deprivation conditions in a nutrient medium supplemented with the vitamin biotin. The offspring exhibited new properties, both at the molecular level, as well as in their phenotypes.

Results could be applicable to other fungi

Using so-called microarray analysis, the biologists also investigated the activity of all the approximately 12,000 genes of the mould fungus. The result: the sex genes control the activity of biologically relevant genes, for example those for penicillin production. "We presume that the findings can also be applied to other fungi", says Ulrich Kck, "such as Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus terreus that produce cholesterol-lowering statins, or Penicillium brevicompactum and Tolypocladium inflatum, which produce immunosuppressives that are used in all organ transplantations". The researchers conducted the work in the Christian Doppler Laboratory "Biotechnology of Fungi" at the Ruhr-Universitt with funding from the Christian Doppler Society (Vienna).

Contact: Prof. Dr. Ulrich Kck
Ruhr-University Bochum

Related biology news :

1. Climate warming unlikely to cause near-term extinction of Amazon trees, but threats remain
2. Warming climate unlikely to cause extinction of ancient Amazon trees, study finds
3. Report: Cleanup of some contaminated groundwater sites unlikely for decades
4. Research warns Asia unlikely to achieve climate, poverty goals unless womens rights are recognized
5. Nearly one-tenth of hemispheres mammals unlikely to outrun climate change
6. Most-used diabetes drug works in different way than previously thought
7. A better thought-controlled computer cursor
8. Empathy represses analytic thought, and vice versa
9. The fin whale, under more threat in the Mediterranean than thought
10. UConn researchers discover that red tide species is deadlier than first thought
11. Our coral reefs: In trouble - but tougher than we thought
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/9/2015)... , Nov. 9, 2015  Synaptics Inc. (NASDAQ: ... today announced broader entry into the automotive market with ... match the pace of consumer electronics human interface innovation. ... are ideal for the automotive industry and will be ... Europe , Japan ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... Daon, a global leader in mobile biometric ... new version of its IdentityX Platform , IdentityX ... have already installed IdentityX v4.0 and are ... FIDO UAF certified server component as an option ... features. These customers include some of the largest and ...
(Date:10/27/2015)... , Oct. 27, 2015 In the present ... of concern for various industry verticals such as banking, ... to the growing demand for secure & simplified access ... ,sectors, such as hacking of bank accounts, misuse of ... equipment such as PC,s, laptops, and smartphones are expected ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/24/2015)... , Nov. 24, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - Aeterna ... announced today that the remaining 11,000 post-share consolidation ... Purchase Warrants (the "Series B Warrants") subject to ... exercised on November 23, 2015, which will result ... After giving effect to the issuance of such ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... November 24, 2015 , ... ... are paramount. Insertion points for in-line sensors can represent a weak spot where ... InTrac 781/784 series of retractable sensor housings , which are designed to tolerate ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... , ... November 24, 2015 , ... ... OrthoAccel® Technologies, Inc., on being named to Deloitte's 2015 Technology Fast 500 list ... facility, OrthoAccel manufactures AcceleDent®, a FDA-cleared, Class II medical device that speeds up ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... , Nov. 24, 2015 Capricor Therapeutics, ... focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of first-in-class ... Chief Executive Officer, is scheduled to present at the ... at 10:50 a.m. EST, at The Lotte New York ... . . --> ...
Breaking Biology Technology: