Mention catalyst and most people will think of the catalytic converter, an emissions control device in the exhaust system of automobiles that reduces pollution.
But catalysts are used for a broad variety of purposes, including the conversion of petroleum and renewable resources into fuel, as well as the production of plastics, fertilizers, paints, solvents, pharmaceuticals and more. About 20 percent of the gross domestic product in the United States depends upon catalysts to facilitate the chemical reactions needed to create products for everyday life.
Catalysts are materials that activate desired chemical reactions without themselves becoming altered in the process. This allows the catalysts to be used continuously because they do not readily deteriorate and are not consumed in the chemical reactions they inspire.
Chemists long ago discovered and refined many catalysts and continue to do so, though the details of the mechanisms by which they work often are not understood.
A new collaborative study at the University of Virginia details for the first time a new type of catalytic site where oxidation catalysis occurs, shedding new light on the inner workings of the process. The study, conducted by John Yates, a professor of chemistry in the College and Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, and Matthew Neurock, a professor of chemical engineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Science, will be published in the Aug. 5 issue of the journal Science.
Yates said the discovery has implications for understanding catalysis with a potentially wide range of materials, since oxidation catalysis is critical to a number of technological applications.
"We have both experimental tools, such as spectrometers, and theoretical tools, such as computational chemistry, that now allow us to study catalysis at the atomic level," he said. "We can focus in and find that sweet spot more efficiently than ever. What w
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University of Virginia