Navigation Links
University of Virginia researchers uncover new catalysis site

Mention catalyst and most people will think of the catalytic converter, an emissions control device in the exhaust system of automobiles that reduces pollution.

But catalysts are used for a broad variety of purposes, including the conversion of petroleum and renewable resources into fuel, as well as the production of plastics, fertilizers, paints, solvents, pharmaceuticals and more. About 20 percent of the gross domestic product in the United States depends upon catalysts to facilitate the chemical reactions needed to create products for everyday life.

Catalysts are materials that activate desired chemical reactions without themselves becoming altered in the process. This allows the catalysts to be used continuously because they do not readily deteriorate and are not consumed in the chemical reactions they inspire.

Chemists long ago discovered and refined many catalysts and continue to do so, though the details of the mechanisms by which they work often are not understood.

A new collaborative study at the University of Virginia details for the first time a new type of catalytic site where oxidation catalysis occurs, shedding new light on the inner workings of the process. The study, conducted by John Yates, a professor of chemistry in the College and Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, and Matthew Neurock, a professor of chemical engineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Science, will be published in the Aug. 5 issue of the journal Science.

Yates said the discovery has implications for understanding catalysis with a potentially wide range of materials, since oxidation catalysis is critical to a number of technological applications.

"We have both experimental tools, such as spectrometers, and theoretical tools, such as computational chemistry, that now allow us to study catalysis at the atomic level," he said. "We can focus in and find that sweet spot more efficiently than ever. What we've found with this discovery could be broadly useful for designing catalysts for all kinds of catalytic reactions."

Using a titanium dioxide substrate holding nanometer-size gold particles, U.Va. chemists and chemical engineers found a special site that serves as a catalyst at the perimeter of the gold and titanium dioxide substrate.

"The site is special because it involves the bonding of an oxygen molecule to a gold atom and to an adjacent titanium atom in the support," Yates said. "Neither the gold nor the titanium dioxide exhibits this catalytic activity when studied alone."

Using spectroscopic measurements combined with theory, the Yates and Neurock team were able to follow specific molecular transformations and determine precisely where they occurred on the catalyst.

The experimental and theoretical work, guided by Yates and Neurock, was carried out by Isabel Green, a U.Va. Ph.D. candidate in chemistry, and Wenjie Tang, a research associate in chemical engineering. They demonstrated that the significant catalytic activity occurred on unique sites formed at the perimeter region between the gold particles and their titania support.

"We call it a dual catalytic site because two dissimilar atoms are involved," Yates said.

They saw that an oxygen molecule binds chemically to both a gold atom at the edge of the gold cluster and a nearby titanium atom on the titania support and reacts with an adsorbed carbon monoxide molecule to form carbon dioxide. Using spectroscopy they could follow the consumption of carbon monoxide at the dual site.

"This particular site is specific for causing the activation of the oxygen molecule to produce an oxidation reaction on the surface of the catalyst," Yates said. "It's a new class of reactive site not identified before."


Contact: Fariss Samarrai
University of Virginia

Related biology news :

1. Rice University establishes National Corrosion Center
2. Case Western Reserve University researchers track Chernobyl fallout
3. Case Western Reserve University project ties soil conservation and river management together
4. Brown University and Women & Infants Hospital expand national childrens study to Bristol County
5. NIH selects Case Western Reserve University to participate in National Childrens Study
6. US Senate confirms Clemson University engineering Dean Esin Gulari to National Science Board
7. University professor stresses links between US Navy sonar and whale strandings
8. Scent on demand: Hebrew University scientists enhance the scent of flowers
9. University success at national engineering awards
10. University of Leicester professor adds new perspective to rainforest debate
11. Providing toilets, safe water is top route to reducing world poverty: UN University
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
University of Virginia researchers uncover new catalysis site
(Date:10/27/2015)... Synaptics Inc. (NASDAQ: SYNA ), the leader ... adopted the Synaptics ® ClearPad ® Series ... newest flagship smartphones, the Nexus 5X by LG and ... --> --> Synaptics works closely with ... in the joint development of next generation technologies. Together, ...
(Date:10/26/2015)... LAS VEGAS , Oct. 26, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... innovator in modern authentication and a founding member of ... of its latest version of the Nok Nok™ S3 ... use standards-based authentication that supports existing and emerging methods ... is ideal for organizations deploying customer-facing applications that require ...
(Date:10/23/2015)... -- Research and Markets ( ) has announced ... Market 2015-2019" report to their offering. ... voice recognition biometrics market to grow at a CAGR ... --> The report, Global Voice Recognition ... in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/24/2015)... Nov. 24, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - Aeterna Zentaris Inc. ... that the remaining 11,000 post-share consolidation (or 1,100,000 ... (the "Series B Warrants") subject to the previously ... November 23, 2015, which will result in the ... effect to the issuance of such shares, there ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... 24, 2015 , ... InSphero AG, the leading supplier of easy-to-use solutions for ... Aregger to serve as Chief Operating Officer. , Having joined InSphero in ... and was promoted to Head of InSphero Diagnostics in 2014. There she ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... -- Capricor Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: CAPR ... and commercialization of first-in-class therapeutics, today announced that ... to present at the 2015 Piper Jaffray Healthcare Conference ... The Lotte New York Palace Hotel in ... --> . --> ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... and NEW YORK , November 24, 2015 ... by Bristol-Myers Squibb in a European ... Squibb Company in which the companies will work closely ... and other areas of unmet medical need. The collaboration is ... 5, the latest LSP fund. This is the first investment ...
Breaking Biology Technology: