What the scientists found was unexpected.
The subjects receiving ultrasound showed significant improvements in their ability to distinguish pins at closer distances and to discriminate small frequency differences between successive air puffs.
"Our observations surprised us," said Tyler. "Even though the brain waves associated with the tactile stimulation had weakened, people actually got better at detecting differences in sensations."
Why would suppression of brain responses to sensory stimulation heighten perception? Tyler speculates that the ultrasound affected an important neurological balance.
"It seems paradoxical, but we suspect that the particular ultrasound waveform we used in the study alters the balance of synaptic inhibition and excitation between neighboring neurons within the cerebral cortex," Tyler said. "We believe focused ultrasound changed the balance of ongoing excitation and inhibition processing sensory stimuli in the brain region targeted and that this shift prevented the spatial spread of excitation in response to stimuli resulting in a functional improvement in perception."
To understand how well they could pinpoint the effect, the research team moved the acoustic beam one centimeter in either direction of the original site of brain stimulation and the effect disappeared.
"That means we can use ultrasound to target an area of the brain as small as the size of an M&M," Tyler said. "This finding represents a new way of noninvasively modulating human brain activity with a better spatial resolution than anything currently available."
Based on the findings of the current study and an earlier one, the researchers concluded that ultrasound has a greater spatial resolution than two other leading noninvasive
|Contact: Paula Byron|