Navigation Links
UT Southwestern research could lead to new treatments for IBD, viral infections
Date:10/19/2011

DALLAS Oct. 19, 2011 The intestinal ecosystem is even more dynamic than previously thought, according to two studies by UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers published in the latest issue of Science.

Taken together, these studies provide a new understanding of the unique intestinal environment and suggest new strategies for the prevention of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and viral infections, the researchers said.

"Mammals have evolved ways to limit invasion by the naturally occurring bacteria that live in their intestines even as viruses have developed strategies to break through those defenses and cause infection," said Dr. Julie Pfeiffer, assistant professor of microbiology.

Dr. Pfeiffer is senior author of a new study that finds that, even after 100 years, the polio virus has tricks to reveal. It is well known that after oral ingestion and passage through the intestine, poliovirus can move throughout the body and occasionally cause paralysis. Her team showed that the virus uses the body's natural gut bacteria in order to become more infectious.

In the other study, senior author Dr. Lora Hooper, associate professor of immunology and microbiology and an investigator for the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), reported that an antibiotic protein called RegIIIγ acts like a sentry to keep the 100 trillion bacteria that live in the gut from causing digestive havoc, by maintaining a "demilitarized zone" in the layer of mucus that normally covers the inner surface of the intestines.

Bacteria in the intestine normally work to help the body digest and deliver nutrients from food after eating. A 50-micron zone of separation, about half the width of a human hair, lies between the bacteria that live in the gut and the intestinal wall. In addition to mucous, that zone contains biologically active molecules like the protein RegIIIγ that Dr. Hooper's laboratory discovered in 2006.

Dr. Hooper and her colleagues showed for the first time how the protein works to police the intestinal demilitarized zone, preventing the naturally occurring bacteria from invading the wall of the intestine, where they can cause problems such as IBD.

"If too many bacteria invade this demilitarized zone, you get ramped up production of the protein RegIIIγ and it pushes them back," Dr. Hooper said.

In people with IBD in which inflammation and the body's response to it can result in painful ulcers and bloody diarrhea the demilitarized zone is compromised and more bacteria come in contact with the intestinal lining, she explained.

Dr. Hooper's four-year study, which compared the intestinal health of mice that lacked the protein with that of normal mice, found that mice lacking the protein also lacked the protected space between the bacteria and the intestinal lining.

The researchers have patented RegIIIγ as a potential antibiotic therapeutic, though further study is needed to determine if the protein could be developed to help people with IBD or related diseases.

In her study, Dr. Pfeiffer found that mice lacking the normal intestinal bacteria had half the death rate from polio as mice with intact gut bacteria. The findings were the opposite of what the researchers had expected because, like most people, they had expected the body's intestinal bacteria to offer protection from viral diseases as they have been shown to protect against bacterial infection, she explained.

So Dr. Pfeiffer's research team conducted a series of experiments to validate and expand that finding, all of which backed up the original conclusion. For instance, they found that virus exposed to bacteria could attach to human cells better than virus that lacked bacterial exposure.

Poliovirus is a very wasteful entity, with only about one in 200 viral particles able to cause infection. To determine whether bacteria could make poliovirus more efficient, Dr. Pfeiffer and colleagues incubated viruses in different warm environments to see how long they took to decay.

Virus incubated in salt water decayed over time, as expected. In contrast, virus incubated in any of several strains of bacteria became up to five times more infectious.

"Bacteria are literally activating the virus. There is nothing in that test tube that the virus can use for replication, so it must be increasing the viral infectivity," she said.

But the researchers wanted to delve deeper. They found that two different carbohydrates (polysaccharides) on the bacterial cell surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan were able to spike poliovirus infectivity even in the absence of bacteria.


'/>"/>

Contact: Debbie Bolles
debbie.bolles@utsouthwestern.edu
214-648-3404
UT Southwestern Medical Center
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Waste from gut bacteria helps host control weight, UT Southwestern researchers report
2. RSV may hide in the lungs, lead to asthma, UT Southwestern researchers report
3. UT Southwestern researcher awarded Gates Foundation grant for novel vaccine development
4. Deranged calcium signaling contributes to neurological disorder, UT Southwestern researchers find
5. UT Southwestern researchers identify gene linked to inherited form of fatal lung disease
6. UT Southwestern scientist honored among best in Texas research
7. Natural brain substance blocks weight gain in mice, UT Southwestern researchers discover
8. UT Southwestern researchers disrupt biochemical system involved in cancer, degenerative disease
9. UT Southwestern researchers identify molecule that helps the sleep-deprived to mentally rebound
10. Two UT Southwestern researchers awarded Sloan fellowships
11. Diabetics on high-fiber diets might need extra calcium, report UT Southwestern researchers
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/3/2016)... 3, 2016 ... the "Emotion Detection and Recognition Market ... Others), Software Tools (Facial Expression, Voice Recognition ... Regions - Global forecast to 2020" ... http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/d8zjcd/emotion_detection ) has announced the addition ...
(Date:2/2/2016)... 2016 Technology Enhancements Accelerate Growth of X-ray Imaging ... digital and computed radiography markets in Thailand ... Indonesia (TIM). It provides an in-depth ... well as regional market drivers and restraints. The study ... and market attractiveness, both for digital and computed radiography. ...
(Date:2/1/2016)... 1, 2016  Today, the first day of American ... to develop a first of its kind workplace health ... Watson. In the first application of Watson ... IBM ), and Welltok will create a new offering ... cognitive analytics, delivered on Welltok,s health optimization platform. The ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... 2016 , ... LATHAM, NEW YORK... Marktech Optoelectronics will feature their ... in San Francisco’s Moscone Center from February 16-18, 2016, and at the healthcare-focused BiOS ... InGaAs PIN diode standard packages feature a TO-46 metal can with active areas of ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... February 10, 2016 , ... ... research registry built on the secure online PatientCrossroads platform, has exceeded both its ... participants have joined the PROMPT study, which seeks to advance understanding of the ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... February 10, 2016 , ... Global Stem Cells ... with Singapore-based Global Stem Cells Network (GSCN) and its affiliate Global Medical ... the latest adipose and bone marrow therapies. , Through the new collaboration, ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... February 09, 2016 , ... Creation ... winner of the Highest Overall Customer Rating Award from Circuits Assembly , today ... units across the USA, Canada, Mexico and China. , The EMS provider, known ...
Breaking Biology Technology: