Sub Saharan Africa
Among 48 Sub-Saharan African countries, complete information on wastewater generation, treatment, and use is available from only three countries Senegal, Seychelles and South Africa. Even this information is old, as the data from Seychelles and South Africa pertain to 2000 to 2003. The countries with partial data available are Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Mauritania, Mauritius, Namibia, Swaziland and Uganda. No data are available from the remaining 32 countries in the region.
Most wastewater goes untreated in sub-Saharan Africa, where water pollution triggers the spread of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and cholera. In most cases, the wastewater used for in agriculture is polluted. For example, untreated wastewater is used for irrigation in the peri-urban zones around Kumasi in Ghana, Dakar in Senegal, Nairobi in Kenya and Bulawayo in Zimbabwe.
Given the inherent uncertainty regarding wastewater quality and nutrient content, it is not possible for farmers to optimize the use of nutrients, particularly when using untreated wastewater.
Complete information on all three aspects of wastewater is available only from Australia. The volume of treated wastewater is available for New Zealand, but the information on the volume of wastewater generated and treated wastewater used is not available. No information regarding wastewater is available from Fiji and the Solomon Islands.
About 45% of the 450 wastewater use projects in Oceania are in agriculture sector. In Australia, an estimated 0.35 cubic kilometers of treated wastewater are used annually. This volume accounts for 19% of the wastewater treated in the country and about 4% of the total water supply
In New Zealand, wastewater is used to irrigate golf courses and for industrial ap
|Contact: Terry Collins|
United Nations University