Russian Federation and Independent States from the Soviet Union
Complete information on wastewater generation, treatment, and use is available for 8 countries Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan (Table 4). Partial data are available for other countries Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, and Ukraine.
The volume of wastewater treated in the Russian Federation is about 14 cubic kilometers per year. Nearly 28% of this is treated in accordance with established regulations, while the remainder is emitted in inadequately treated form into water bodies.
Middle East and North Africa
The estimated volume of wastewater generated in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is 22.3 cubic kilometers per year, of which 51% (11.4 cubic kilometers per year) is treated. With the exception of Algeria and Iraq, complete information on wastewater generation, treatment, and use is available from all countries in the region.
Treated wastewater use is essential in the water scarce MENA region. Currently, 51% of treated wastewater is used for irrigation. Some countries in the region are planning to increase the use of treated wastewater. For example, Saudi Arabia intends to increase wastewater use to 65% by 2016 (USEPA, 2012). Israel already uses 70% of the wastewater generated in the domestic sector.
High-income countries in the region use treated wastewater for agricultural and landscape irrigation. In Kuwait, only vegetables that are eaten after cooking (potatoes and cauliflower), industrial crops, forage crops (alfalfa and barely), and highway landscapes may be irrigated with treated wastewater in Kuwait.
Wastewater use represents about 10% of the Israeli nationa
|Contact: Terry Collins|
United Nations University