Navigation Links
UCSF discovers new glucose-regulating protein linked with diabetes
Date:5/28/2009

Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, and collaborators at Harvard Medical School have linked a specialized protein in human muscles to the process that clears glucose out of the bloodstream, shedding light on what goes wrong in type 2 diabetes on a cellular level.

Establishing the function of this protein, which significantly is not present in mice, has broad implications for both the future study and possible therapies for diabetes, according to an article published in the May 29, 2009 issue of the journal "Science."

While a significant amount of research into diabetes and many other diseases is conducted in mice, the often-unknown differences between mice and men can create obstacles to direct translation of such research and need to be taken into account in understanding the progression of human disease, according to the researchers.

"Much has been learned from mouse models about glucose metabolism that is relevant to human diabetes, but what happens on a cellular level is now found to be different between the two species," said Frances Brodsky, DPhil, senior author on the paper and a UCSF professor in the Departments of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, and Microbiology and Immunology. "This research shows one significant species-specific difference that will influence our understanding of mechanisms of type 2 diabetes."

In humans, muscles play a key role in clearing glucose from the bloodstream, Brodsky explained. In normal function, this is controlled by insulin, which stimulates the muscle cells to import glucose by means of a system known as the GLUT4 glucose transporter.

Normally, she said, GLUT4 is stored inside both human and mouse muscles in a special compartment that releases it upon insulin stimulation. Fat cells also form a GLUT4 compartment and take up glucose in response to insulin. In type 2 diabetes, however, the muscle and fat cells fail to respond appropriately to the insulin and the GLUT4 compartment is abnormal. This process was thought to be identical across mammal species.

The current research identified a protein in both human muscle and fat cells, called CHC22, which appears to control the formation of the GLUT4 storage compartments.

The team determined that this protein is a specialized form of a ubiquitous housekeeping protein called clathrin, which Brodsky has studied since the 1980s and is known to be instrumental in moving proteins between cellular compartments. CHC22 was observed to be associated with the abnormal GLUT4 compartments in muscles from diabetic patients which, for some reason, do not mobilize to the muscle cell surface when stimulated by insulin.

Notably, she said, while mice also have an insulin-responsive GLUT4 compartment, they lack the CHC22 protein. As a result, this work has implications for developing better models for the study of type 2 diabetes.

The paper highlights the differences between humans and mice and offers insights into aspects of the GLUT4 transport mechanism within cells that are specialized in humans, according to a commentary on the paper that appears in the same journal.

Brodsky said the Harvard team on this research produced the mouse capable of expressing CHC22 in its muscles and fat, which was analyzed in the study. These mice have features of diabetes, because the protein disrupts their GLUT4 transport pathway, which normally operates without CHC22. Also instrumental to the study was a human muscle cell line produced by the collaborator at University of Texas Southwestern.


'/>"/>

Contact: Kristen Bole
kbole@pubaff.ucsf.edu
415-476-2557
University of California - San Francisco
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. deCODE discovers cause of major subtype of glaucoma
2. CU-Boulder team discovers first ancient manioc fields in Americas
3. Weill Cornell team discovers how brains own tPA helps regulate blood flow to neurons
4. QUT researcher discovers Maya mask splendor
5. CSHL scientists part of team that discovers role of rare gene mutations in schizophrenia
6. Researcher discovers pathway plants use to fight back against pathogens
7. NYU dental professor discovers biological clock linking tooth growth to other metabolic processes
8. U of T discovers environmental factors linked to sex ratio of plants
9. N.Y. research team discovers how antidepressants and cocaine interact with brain cell targets
10. Wildlife Conservation Society discovers Planet of the Apes
11. UCR graduate student discovers, names bacterium linked to psyllid yellows
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/15/2016)... June 15, 2016 Transparency ... titled "Gesture Recognition Market by Application Market - Global Industry Analysis ... 2024". According to the report, the  global gesture recognition ... 2015 and is estimated to grow at a ... by 2024.  Increasing application of gesture ...
(Date:6/9/2016)... TURKU, Finland , June 9, 2016 ... French National Police deploy Teleste,s video security solution to ensure ... France during the major tournament ... and data communications systems and services, announced today that its ... Police Prefecture to back up public safety across ...
(Date:6/3/2016)... 2016 Das DOTM ... Nepal hat ein 44 Millionen ... Kennzeichen, einschließlich Personalisierung, Registrierung und IT-Infrastruktur, an ... und Implementierung von Identitätsmanagementlösungen. Zahlreiche renommierte internationale ... teilgenommen, aber Decatur wurde als konformste und ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... MA (PRWEB) , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... Peel Plate® YM (Yeast and Mold) microbial test has received AOAC Research Institute ... platform of microbial tests introduced last year,” stated Bob Salter, Vice President of ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- The Biodesign Challenge (BDC), a university competition that asks ... systems and biotechnology, announced its winning teams at the ... York City . The teams, chosen ... MoMA,s Celeste Bartos Theater during the daylong summit. Keynote ... of architecture and design, and Suzanne Lee , ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... , ... Supplyframe, the Industry Network for electronics hardware design ... Located in Pasadena, Calif., the Design Lab’s mission is to bring together inventors ... and brought to market. , The Design Lab is Supplyframe’s physical representation of ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... In a new case report ... detail how a patient who developed lymphedema after being treated for breast cancer benefitted ... change the paradigm for dealing with this debilitating, frequent side effect of cancer treatment. ...
Breaking Biology Technology: