Navigation Links
UCLA scientists complete first mapping of molecule found in human embryonic stem cells
Date:7/21/2011

Stem cell researchers at UCLA have generated the first genome-wide mapping of a DNA modification called 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in embryonic stem cells, and discovered that it is predominantly found in genes that are turned on, or active.

The finding by researchers with the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA may prove to be important in controlling diseases like cancer, where the regulation of certain genes plays a role in disease development.

"Any way you can control genes will be hugely important for human disease and cancer," said Steven E. Jacobsen, a professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology in the Life Sciences and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. "Cancer is generally a problem of genes being inappropriately turned off or mutated, like tumor suppressors genes, or genes that should be off getting switched on."

The study appears in the July issue of the journal Genome Biology.

5hmC is formed from the DNA base cytosine by adding a methyl group and then a hydroxy group. The molecule is important in epigenetics - the study of changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the DNA sequence - because the newly formed hydroxymethyl group on the cytosine can potentially switch a gene on and off, Jacobsen said.

The molecule 5hmC was only recently discovered, and its function has not been clearly understood, Jacobsen said. Until now, researchers didn't know where 5hmC was located within the genome.

"That is important to know because it helps you to understand how it is functioning and what it's being used for," said Jacobsen, who also is a researcher with UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. "We had known that DNA could be modified by 5hmC, but it wasn't clear where on the genome this was occurring."

Jacobsen, whose lab studies the molecular genetics and genomics of DNA methylation patterning, used genomics to define where in human embryonic stem cells the 5hmC was present. They used human embryonic stem cells because it had been shown previously that the molecule is abundant in those cells, as well as in brain cells, Jacobsen said.

In the study, Jacobsen found that 5hmC was associated with genes and tended to be found on genes that were active. The study also revealed that 5hmC was present on a type of DNA regulatory element, called enhancers, which help control gene expression. In particular, 5hmC was present on enhancers that are crucial for defining the nature of the human embryonic stem cells.

The results suggest that 5hmC plays a role in the activation of genes. This is opposite of the role of the more well studied 5mC (DNA methylation), which is involved in silencing genes. This relationship is in line with the view that 5hmC is created directly from 5mC.

"If we can understand the function of 5hmC, that will lead to greater understanding of how genes are turned on and off and that could lead to the development of methods for controlling gene regulation," Jacobsen said.

Moving forward, Jacobsen and his team will seek to uncover the mechanism by which 5hmC is created from DNA methylation and how it becomes localized to particular areas of the genome, such as the enhancers.


'/>"/>

Contact: Kim Irwin
kirwin@mednet.ucla.edu
310-206-2805
University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Cutting-edge imaging techniques for neuroscientists available in latest laboratory manual
2. New duck-billed dinosaur gives scientists clues to evolution of head ornamentation and provinciality
3. Scripps Research scientists create vaccine against heroin high
4. Hebrew U. scientists show for first time how early human embryo acquires its shape
5. Plenary speakers address challenges in the delivery of sustained antiretroviral therapy in developing countries, call for social scientists to take their place at the HIV/AIDS policy-making table, and stress the need for a long-term response to AIDS
6. OHSU scientists discover new role for vitamin C in the eye -- and the brain
7. Scientists to assemble knowledgebase on plants, microbes, to aid US biofuel, environment efforts
8. Simple little spud helps scientists crack potatos mighty genome
9. Scientists discover first gonorrhea strain resistant to all available antibiotics
10. UW-Madison scientists played role in potato genome project
11. Scientists discover how best to excite brain cells
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/1/2016)... 2016 Favorable Government Initiatives Coupled ... Criminal Identification to Boost Global Biometrics System Market Through ... Research report, " Global Biometrics Market By Type, ... Opportunities, 2011 - 2021", the global biometrics market is ... account of growing security concerns across various end use ...
(Date:5/12/2016)... -- WearablesResearch.com , a brand of Troubadour Research ... the Q1 wave of its quarterly wearables survey. A ... to a program where they would receive discounts for ... "We were surprised to see that so ... , CEO of Troubadour Research, "primarily because there are ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... First quarter 2016:   , ... the first quarter of 2015 The gross margin was ... 18.8) and the operating margin was 40% (-13) Earnings ... flow from operations was SEK 249.9 M (21.2) , ... SEK 7,000-8,500 M. The operating margin for 2016 is ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)... CA (PRWEB) , ... June 27, 2016 , ... ... for clinical trials, announced today the Clinical Reach Virtual Patient Encounter CONSULT ... care circle with the physician and clinical trial team. , Using the CONSULT module, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... , June 24, 2016  Regular discussions on a ... take place between the two entities said Poloz. ... Ottawa , he pointed to the country,s ... the federal government. ... said, "Both institutions have common economic goals, why not sit ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... pleased to announce the launch of their brand, UP4™ Probiotics, into Target stores ... 35 years, is proud to add Target to its list of well-respected retailers. ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Charm Sciences, Inc. is ... has received AOAC Research Institute approval 061601. , “This is another AOAC-RI approval ... Bob Salter, Vice President of Regulatory and Industrial Affairs. “The Peel Plate methods ...
Breaking Biology Technology: