Navigation Links
UAlberta researchers examine metabolism in defective cells
Date:4/11/2014

UAlberta researchers are taking a closer look at how two metabolic pathways interact to increase the lifespan of cells with mitochondrial defects. Magnus Friis is the lead author of the study, which was published online on April 10 and will be published in the April 24 issue of Cell Reports.

Mitochondria produce energy for cells through oxidative metabolism, but the process produces toxic byproducts that can accumulate and cause defects in the cell's mitochondria. These defects, in turn, affect the cell's ability to generate energy and can potentially lead to cell death and are associated with aging and various neurological diseases.

Friis, a postdoctoral fellow in Mike Schultz's biochemistry lab, examined how dietary changes at the cell level can affect cell health. He exposed normal and defective yeast cells to two different energy sources: glucose, the preferred sugar of cells, and raffinose, a natural sugar found in vegetables and whole grains.

"[The dietary intervention] is a general shift in what we're feeding the cells to get them to do something different with their whole nutrient metabolism," Friis noted. "There are signaling pathways that allow a cell to sense its environment and co-ordinate events to allow the cell to adapt to what's going on. In this case, [cells are responding to] which nutrients are available."

Friis and Schultz examined two nutrient signaling pathways called the AMPK pathway and the retrograde response. AMPK responds to energy deficits in the cell by down-regulating energy consuming processes, which are often associated with cell growth, and up-regulating energy producing processes. The retrograde response pathway is specific to the yeast used in the study and supplies key amino acids to the cell by changing the metabolic process of the mitochondria.

When activated individually, neither the AMPK pathway nor the retrograde response provided substantial benefits to cells with damaged mitochondria. When activated simultaneously, clear benefits became evident.

"We looked at the effect activating both pathways had on maintenance of cellular viability in what's called a chronological aging experiment," Friis said. "Even when they had defective mitochondria, the cells with the retrograde response and AMPK simultaneously activated during growth were able to live as long as cells with normal mitochondrial function."

Working in collaboration with John Paul Glaves, a postdoctoral fellow in Bryan Sykes' lab, and Tao Huan, a PhD student in Liang Li's lab, Friis measured the molecules produced during the metabolic process. They found that the defective cells had higher levels of branched chain amino acids and trahelose, a carbohydrate found in yeast that can serve an energy source, similar to glycogen in human cells.

"By activating AMPK, we've removed certain blocks in metabolism. With the retrograde response, we've changed the amino acid metabolism in a way that allowed the cells to accumulate storage carbohydrates, which stabilize their function," Friis said.

Activated AMPK and retrograde response pathways allow the cell to accumulate a storage carbohydrate, which can be metabolize normally despite mitochondrial defects that affect the cell's metabolism. The additional energy stabilizes cell function and prevents premature cell death often caused by defects in mitochondria.

"No matter how many people are working on the problem in humans, mitochondrial disorders are too complicated to figure out the nuts and bolts without the work that Magnus is doing," Schultz said. "This research opens the concept, a new concept on how to deal with these metabolic problems."


'/>"/>

Contact: Amy Hewko
ahewko@ualberta.ca
780-492-0647
University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Diets high in salt could deplete calcium in the body: UAlberta research
2. UAlberta medical researchers discover how immune system kills healthy cells
3. UAlberta medical researchers discover potential new treatment for colitis
4. Study by UC Santa Barbara researchers suggests that bacteria communicate by touch
5. UC Santa Barbara researchers discover genetic link between visual pathways of hydras and humans
6. Researchers attempt to solve problems of antibiotic resistance and bee deaths in one
7. UNH researchers find African farmers need better climate change data to improve farming practices
8. Ottawa researchers to lead world-first clinical trial of stem cell therapy for septic shock
9. Researchers uncover molecular pathway through which common yeast becomes fungal pathogen
10. Researchers print live cells with a standard inkjet printer
11. Columbia Engineering and Penn researchers increase speed of single-molecule measurements
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/21/2016)... , March 22, 2016 ... recognition with passcodes for superior security   ... a leading provider of secure digital communications services, today ... biometric technology and offer enterprise customers, particularly those in ... facial recognition and voice authentication within a mobile app, ...
(Date:3/15/2016)... ALBANY, New York , March 15, 2016 ... a new market report published by Transparency Market Research "Digital ... Growth, Trends and Forecast 2015 - 2023," the global digital ... at US$ 731.9 Mn in 2014 and is forecast to ... to 2023. Growth of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) ...
(Date:3/14/2016)... HANOVER , Allemagne, March 14, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... http://www.apimages.com ) - --> - ... ) - --> ... les solutions biométriques, fournit de nouveaux lecteurs d,empreintes ... lecteur LF10 de DERMALOG sera utilisé pour produire ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/26/2016)... Despite the volatility that continues to envelop the ... research on ActiveWallSt.com directs the investor community,s focus on the ... ), Cerus Corp. (NASDAQ: CERS ), Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals ... Inc. (NASDAQ: FPRX ). Register with us today ... On Wednesday, shares in Massachusetts ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... May 25, 2016 , ... Thailand’s Board of ... 2016 in San Francisco. Located at booth number 7301, representatives from the Thai ... and discuss the Thai biotechnology and life sciences sector. , Deputy Secretary ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. (PRWEB) , ... May 25, 2016 , ... ... create efficiencies in healthcare information exchange, today announced that Charles W. Stellar has been ... served as WEDI’s interim CEO since January 2016. As an executive leader with more ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... CA (PRWEB) , ... May 24, 2016 , ... Last ... planning for corporate executives and entrepreneurs, held The Future of San Diego Life Science ... the San Diego life science community attended the event with speakers Dr. Rich Heyman, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: