After completing systematic, high-throughput screens of more than 40 cancer cell lines, the researchers chose to focus on melanoma, looking at whether factors normal cells secrete help cancer cells resist treatment. They measured more than 500 secreted factors and found that the factor most closely linked to BRAF inhibitor drug resistance was hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). HGF interacts with the MET receptor, abnormal activation of which has been tied to tumor growth in previous studies but never to drug resistance in melanoma.
In addition to studying cells in the lab, the research team sought to replicate their findings in samples from cancer patients. Keith Flaherty, director of developmental therapeutics at Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and an associate professor at Harvard Medical School, and his lab provided 34 patient samples for study. The team measured levels of HGF in these samples and saw a relationship between how much HGF was present and the amount of tumor shrinkage patients experienced. For example, tumors in patients with high levels of HGF shrank less than those in patients with low HGF levels.
"To try to explore in patient samples what factors in the microenvironment are not only present but functionally important in drug resistance would have been largely impossible. Coming up with candidates in the lab and then exploring relevance in humans in a targeted way is the only tractable approach," said Flaherty. "By taking this high-throughput screening, hypothesis-generating approach, we could then follow up by looking at patient samples. In a case like melanoma, where you already have
|Contact: Haley Bridger|
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard