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Toward a more efficient use of solar energy
Date:4/14/2011

es from which unwanted films are removed through photochemical processes triggered by incident sunlight. In hospitals, this effect is used for sterilizing specially coated instruments by means of UV irradiation.

So far, the physical mechanisms of these photochemical reactions on titania surfaces and especially the reason for the much higher activity of anatase could not be explained. The powder particles used in photoreactors are as tiny as a few nanometers only and are thus too small for use in studies by means of the powerful methods of surface analysis. By using instead mm-sized single-crystal substrates, the researchers were for the first time able to precisely study photochemical processes on the surface of titanium dioxide by means of a novel infrared spectrometer.

Using a laser-based technique, the scientists, in addition, determined the lifetime of light-induced electronic excitations inside the TiO2 crystals. According to Professor Christof Wll, Head of the IFG, exact information about these processes is of great importance: "A short lifetime means that the excited electrons fall back again at once: We witness some kind of an internal short circuit. In the case of a long lifetime, the electrons remain in the excited state long enough to be able to reach the surface of the crystal and to induce chemical processes." Anatase is particularly well suited for the latter purpose because it is provided with a special electronic structure that prevents "internal short circuits". Knowledge of this feature will allow the researchers to further optimize shape, size, and doping of anatase particles used inside photoreactors. The objective is to develop photoactive materials with higher efficiencies and longer lifetimes: "The results obtained by Professor Wll and his co-workers are of great importance regarding the generation of electrical and chemical energy from sunlight, and especially regarding the optimization of photoreactors," says Professor Ol
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Contact: Monika Landgraf
presse@kit.edu
49-721-608-47414
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Source:Eurekalert

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