Navigation Links
Tobacco plant thwarts caterpillar onslaught by opening flowers in the morning
Date:1/23/2010

We normally think of pollinators as providing a valuable service to plants, and they certainly do. In exchange for nectar, pollinators like the well-known honey bee carry pollen from one plant to the other and thus promote cross-fertilization. But what happens when the pollinators aren't satisfied with their nectar rewards and decide to eat their generous plant partners? Just such a scenario arises in a number of plant-pollinator mutualisms in which the pollinator deposits eggs on the plant, which then develop into herbivorous larvae. What is a plant to do when faced with such a dilemma?

As reported online on January 21st in Current Biology, a Cell Press publication, Ian Baldwin and colleagues have discovered an ingenious solution to this problem by studying the pollination of a wild tobacco species living in the Southwestern United States. This tobacco plant, Nicotiana attenuata, normally opens its flowers at night, during which it is visited, and pollinated, by the night-active hawkmoth. In exchange for transferring pollen, the hawkmoth is provided with a sugary reward. Such a quid pro quo relationship would seem to be all fine and dandy for N. attenuata, but as it turns out, the hawkmoth also likes to lay its eggs on the planteggs that develop into voracious, leaf-eating caterpillars.

This is obviously not an ideal outcome from the plant's perspective. But N. attenuata has an interesting trick up its sleeve. Stimulated by oral secretions released by the munching caterpillars, N. attenuata performs an astonishing change in flower phenology (the timing of flower opening) in which the flowers open in the morning instead of at night. This change in flower phenology, as well as other alterations, including a metamorphosis in flower shape and the loss of key chemical attractants, leads to a switch in pollinators from the hawkmoth to a local hummingbird. The latter, unlike the hawkmoth, is normally active during the day and seems to be satisfied with just a nectar treat.

Of course, these observations raise the question of why N. attenuata bothers producing night-opening flowers that attract hawkmoths in the first place. Why not just focus on luring hummingbirds? Baldwin and colleagues don't know the answer to this question, but it's possible that the hawkmoth, for all its faults, might be a more reliable and effective pollinator than the hummingbird.

Looking to the field of plant-pollinator interactions more generally, the findings have some potentially broad implications. For one, plants face another dilemma, related to the one described by Baldwin and colleagues, in which traits that attract a pollinator can also attract herbivores, resulting in an inevitable trade-off. Thus, one wonders whether herbivore-induced changes to flower phenology could be used more generally to mitigate the unwanted side effects associated with flowers that are attractive to both pollinators and herbivores. Also, in studying how the caterpillars' oral secretions induce the switch in flower phenology, Baldwin and colleagues discovered that a chemical pathway crucial to many defense responses in plants is required. The role of such a common defense pathway raises the interesting possibility that the effects of herbivore attack described in the study may be common in plants.

Taken as a whole, the findings highlight the remarkable adaptability of plants to changing circumstances and the complex, sometimes contentious, relationships between plants and their pollinators.


'/>"/>

Contact: Cathleen Genova
cgenova@cell.com
617-397-2802
Cell Press
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Changing flowering times protect tobacco plants against insect herbivory
2. Engineered tobacco plants have more potential as a biofuel
3. Study confirms association between tobacco smoke and behavioral problems in children
4. Smokeless tobacco called moist snuff is contaminated with harmful substances
5. Exposure to lead, tobacco smoke raises risk of ADHD
6. Novel mechanism revealed for increasing recombinant protein yield in tobacco
7. Women more vulnerable to tobacco carcinogens, new results show
8. Tobacco makes medicine
9. Novel bioreactor enhances interleukin-12 production in genetically modified tobacco plants
10. Infection blocks lungs protective response against tobacco smoke
11. UT researchers find link between advertising and increased tobacco use among Indias youth
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/28/2017)... , March 28, 2017 The ... Hardware (Camera, Monitors, Servers, Storage Devices), Software (Video Analytics, ... Region - Global Forecast to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, ... 2016 and is projected to reach USD 75.64 Billion ... and 2022. The base year considered for the study ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... 24, 2017 The Controller General of Immigration from ... Abdulla Algeen have received the prestigious international IAIR Award for the ... Continue Reading ... ... Controller Abdulla Algeen (small picture on the right) have received the IAIR ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... The report "Gesture Recognition and Touchless Sensing Market by Technology (Touch-based ... to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is expected to be worth USD ... 2022. Continue Reading ... ... ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/11/2017)... and LAGUNA HILLS, Calif. , Oct. ... Cancer Research, London (ICR) and University ... SKY92, SkylineDx,s prognostic tool to risk-stratify patients with multiple myeloma ... MUK nine . The University of Leeds ... partly funded by Myeloma UK, and ICR will perform the ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... 2017 , ... San Diego-based team building and cooking events company, Lajollacooks4u, has ... The bold new look is part of a transformation to increase awareness, appeal to ... period. , It will also expand its service offering from its signature gourmet cooking ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... 10, 2017 International research firm Parks Associates announced ... at the TMA 2017 Annual Meeting , October 11 in ... residential home security market and how smart safety and security products impact ... Parks Associates: Smart Home ... "The residential security market has ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... DIEGO , Oct. 9, 2017  BioTech ... biological mechanism by which its ProCell stem cell ... critical limb ischemia.  The Company, demonstrated that treatment ... amount of limbs saved as compared to standard ... the molecule HGF resulted in reduction of therapeutic ...
Breaking Biology Technology: