Navigation Links
To improve forecasting earthquakes, NJIT mathematician studies grains
Date:12/22/2008

A new and better way to predict earthquakes and avalanches may soon be available to forecasters thanks to mathematical research underway at NJIT. Using mathematical modeling, researchers are investigating how forces and pressures propagate through granular materials.

"Computational Homology, Jamming and Force Chains in Dense Granular Flows," a four-year, $378,603 National Science Foundation grant has been awarded to Louis Kondic, associate professor of mathematical sciences at NJIT. Kondic will study how the physical properties of granular materials, like sand or salt, can lead to jamming, large force fluctuations and ultimately how they can pressure a building to topple. Both earthquakes and avalanches involve similar materials and reactions.

"The mystery is to learn how forces and pressure propagate or move through grains," said Kondic. "We know the answer for liquids, but for granular materials, we do not. As a result, it is difficult to build efficient devices for dealing with them. Silos can collapse due to non-uniform pressures on their walls. Salt, sand or coal often jams when flowing out of hoppers. But why they behave like this remains unknown."

2006, Kondic was the co-author of "On Velocity Profiles and Stresses in Sheared and Vibrated Granular Systems Under Variable Gravity" which appeared in Physics of Fluids. Other articles by him investigating similar research have appeared in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (2008), SIAM News (2007) and Physics Review E (2005).

(ATTENTION EDITORS: To receive copies of the articles or to interview Kondic, call Sheryl Weinstein, 973-596-3436.)

The current project centers on so-called force chains, which are crucial for understanding granular systems. The attached figure shows computer simulations of heterogeneous, ramified structures (colored yellow). "Similar forces do not propagate uniformly, but instead form chain-like structures," said Kondic. "We will propose new mathematical methods for quantifying these structures. The algorithms will account for the geometrical properties of the forces. Such a generalized model that describes the properties of these features does not exist."

According to Kondic, the research applies to earthquakes and avalanches because when tectonic plates move, they can cause an earthquake. Where the points of these plates meet, the material will typically be in a granular form. Researchers now believe that a better understanding of the forces that exist in this granular state can lead to new methods for predicting when and where earthquakes and/or avalanches will occur.

This project will employ a highly interdisciplinary approach that integrates new geometrical techniques, modeling, and experiments. It will address fundamental questions concerning the physical properties of granular media and other jammed materials such as glasses, foams, and colloids.

Although the existence of force chains has been known for decades, a quantitative understanding of their role in physical processes has proved to be elusive because previous studies have been unable to devise an unbiased and general definition for them. Precise identification and characterization of force chains and the response of jammed materials to applied forces will likely have a transformative impact in many arenas.

The NJIT study is part of a larger NSF project involving Robert P. Behringer, professor of physics, Duke University; Konstantin Mischaikow, professor, department of mathematics, Rutgers University-New Brunswick; Corey O'Hern, associate professor, departments of mechanical engineering and physics, Yale University.


'/>"/>

Contact: Sheryl Weinstein
sheryl.m.weinstein@njit.edu
973-596-3436
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. LSU professors work to improve efficiency of ethanol fuel
2. Geron Demonstrates hESC-derived cardiomyocytes improve heart function after myocardial infarction
3. Drug could improve pregnancy outcomes in wider range of women with insulin resistance
4. Improved e-jet printing provides higher resolution and more versatility
5. MIT model could improve some drugs effectiveness
6. NIH awards UC $9 million grant to improve patient point-of-care technologies
7. In-vitro fertilization improved with 3-D/4-D-guided embryo transfer and new placement target
8. Stronger EPA leadership needed to improve water quality in Mississippi River
9. Exercise improves thinking, reduces diabetes risk in overweight children
10. Endobronchial valve significantly improves emphysema
11. Teamwork improves learning and career success
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/3/2017)... , April 3, 2017  Data captured ... engineering platform, detected a statistically significant association ... prior to treatment and objective response of ... potential to predict whether cancer patients will ... treatment, as well as to improve both pre-infusion ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... March 29, 2017  higi, the health IT company ... North America , today announced a Series ... acquisition of EveryMove. The new investment and acquisition accelerates ... tools to transform population health activities through the collection ... higi collects and secures data today on ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... - Industry Forecast to 2025" report to their offering. ... The Global Biometric Vehicle ... around 15.1% over the next decade to reach approximately $1,580 million ... estimates and forecasts for all the given segments on global as ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... BioMedGPS announces expanded coverage ... its newest module, US Hemostats & Sealants. , SmartTRAK’s US Market for Hemostats ... sealants, synthetic sealants and biologic sealants used in surgical applications. BioMedGPS estimates the ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... , ... October 12, 2017 ... ... has launched Rosalind™, the first-ever genomics analysis platform specifically designed for life ... Named in honor of pioneering researcher Rosalind Franklin, who made a major ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... The CRISPR-Cas9 ... enabling overexpression experiments and avoiding the use of exogenous expression plasmids. The simplicity ... for performing systematic gain-of-function studies. , This complement to loss-of-function studies, such ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... , ... October 11, 2017 , ... ComplianceOnline’s Medical Device ... on 7th and 8th June 2018 in San Francisco, CA. The Summit brings together ... as several distinguished CEOs, board directors and government officials from around the world to ...
Breaking Biology Technology: