Beyond this, "Our study furthers the understanding of factors driving mutational changes in genomes, which is a key issue in medical and natural science," says Johannesson. "For example, the onset of mutations, and the ability, or inability of organisms to eliminate them from their genome underlie key processes such as the onset of diseases in animals, and the rate of species extinctions. Our study advances the understanding of when and how young regions of suppressed recombination in sex regulating chromosomes accumulate mutations, and why evolution may fail to remove these harmful changes in an efficient manner."
(C. A. Whittle, Y. Sun, and H. Johannesson , 2011. Degeneration in Codon Usage within the Region of Suppressed Recombination in the Mating-Type Chromosomes of Neurospora tetrasperma.
Eukaryotic Cell. 10: 594-603.)
New Understanding of Chronic Otitis Media May Inform Future Treatment
In most children with chronic otitis media, biofilms laden with Haemophilus influenzae cling to the adenoids, while among a similar population suffering from obstructive sleep apnea, that pathogen is usually absent, according to a paper in the April 2011 Journal of Clinical Microbiology. This has major implications for treatment of chronic otitis media.
For one thing, biofilms are notoriously resistant to antibiotics. Earlier clinical studies had suggested that adenoids might be reservoirs for middle ear pathogens, and a 1987 study had suggested that adenoidectomy was effective in treating children prone to middle ear infections. Then, in 2006, Luanne Hall-Stoodley of the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, Southhampton, UK, et al. showed in children undergoing installation of tympanostomy tubes for treatment of chronic otitis media that the culprit bacteria inhabited biofilms attached to the middle ear mucosa, along with other bacteria that cause ear infections.
|Contact: Jim Sliwa|
American Society for Microbiology