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Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology
Date:5/16/2011

S rRNA). Ribosomes are the machinery that translate the genetic code into protein, and 16S rRNA differs among species. Since high acidity causes caries, and since only acid tolerant bacteria can survive in levels of acidity associated with active caries, they cultured bacteria under acidic conditions to select for species likely to play important roles in cariogenesis.

"We detected the major caries pathogen of childhood caries, S. mutans, in many of the children with advanced caries," says Tanner. In addition, they the found the new species, S. wiggsiae, in a high proportion of plaque samples from cavities, including in several such samples from which S. mutans was absent. S. wiggsiae can tolerate the level of acidity in active caries, leading the team to speculate that it causes cavities.

Over and above normal dental care, measures to suppress cariogenic bacteria include mouth rinses such as chlorhexidine, Povodine iodine, fluoride, and the use of sugar substitutes, says Tanner. "By removing a primary sugar carbohydrate from the diet, the more cariogenic bacteria would make less acid, and might no longer be able to outcompete non-cariogenic plaque bacteria." Managing very young children for severe caries is difficult, and they are often treated under general anaesthesia.

A.C.R. Tanner, J.M.J. Mathney, R.L. Kent, Jr., N.I. Chalmers, C.V. Hughes, C.Y. Loo, N. Pradhan, E. Kanasi, J. Hwang, M.A. Dahlan, E. Papadopolou, and F.E. Dewhirst, 2011. Cultivable anaerobic microbiota of severe early childhood caries. J. Clin. Microbiol. 49:1464-1474.


Genomic Archeology Reveals Early Evolution of Sex Chromosomes

A team from Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, is using genomics to shed light on the early evolutionary history of sex chromosomes. The research is published in the April 2011 Eukaryotic Cell.

Among other things, the genome is a place where the distant past can be investigated. Researcher
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Contact: Jim Sliwa
jsliwa@asmusa.org
202-942-9297
American Society for Microbiology
Source:Eurekalert

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