"A Brief Historical Overview of the Past Two Decades of Soy and Isoflavone Research," Mark Messina, Ph.D., adjunct associate professor of nutrition at the Loma Linda University School of Public Health in California and of Nutrition Matters, Inc. in Port Townsend, Washington
2. Discovery and Chemistry of Equol
The health benefits of soy-based diets may be greater in people who can produce S-equol after eating soy, than in non-producers. Equol exists in two mirror-image forms: S- equol and R-equol, but intestinal bacteria exclusively produce the S-equol from soy, which is known to have a select affinity for estrogen receptor beta. A man-made chemical process is needed to make R-equol, which binds more weakly with a preference for estrogen receptor alpha. Both forms of equol are of interest from a clinical and pharmacological perspective and are under development as nutraceutical and pharmacological agents. The authors state that wide range of biological activities these two equol forms possess warrants their investigation for the treatment of a number of hormone-related conditions involving conditions dependent on the female hormone estrogen and related to the male hormone androgen.
"Equol: History, Chemistry and Formation," Kenneth D. R. Setchell, of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Ohio, and Carlo Clerici of Clinica di Gastroenterologia ed Epatologia, at the Universita` degli Studi di Perugia University of Perugia in Italy
3. Biological Actions of Equol
Equol exhibits a wide range of biological properties. This paper reviews previous research on how the body processes both equol forms
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