Navigation Links
Tiny acts of microbe justice help reveal how nature fights freeloaders
Date:1/6/2014

The idea of everyone in a community pitching in is so universal that even bacteria have a system to prevent the layabouts of their kind from enjoying the fruit of others' hard work, Princeton University researchers have discovered.

Groups of the bacteria Vibrio cholerae deny loafers their unjust desserts by keeping the food generated by the community's productive members away from V. cholerae that attempt to live on others' leftover nutrients, the researchers report in the journal Current Biology. The researchers found that individual bacteria produce a thick coating around themselves to prevent nutrients from drifting over to the undeserving. Alternatively, the natural flow of fluids over the surface of bacterial communities can wash away excess food before the freeloaders can indulge.

Likely common among bacteria, this act of microscopic justice not only ensures the survival of the group's most industrious members, but also could be used for agriculture, fuel production and the treatment of bacterial infections such as cholera, explained first author Knut Drescher, a postdoctoral research fellow in the lab of senior author Bonnie Bassler, the Squibb Professor in Molecular Biology and department chair.

By encouraging this action, scientists could increase the efficiency of any process that relies on bacteria to break down organic materials, such as plant materials into biofuels, or cellulose into paper products, Drescher said. For treating a disease, the mechanism could be counteracted to effectively starve the more productive bacteria and weaken the infection.

"We could use our discovery to develop strategies that encourage the proliferation of microbes that digest dead organic material into useful products," Drescher said. "Such an approach will be useful for optimizing nutrient recycling for agriculture, bioremediation, industrial cleanup, or making products for industry or medicine."

The Princeton findings also provide insight into how all microbes potentially preserve themselves by imposing fairness and resolving the "public goods dilemma," in which a group must work together while also avoiding exploitation by their self-serving individuals, said co-lead author Carey Nadell, a postdoctoral research associate in Bassler's lab.

"The public goods dilemma is a central problem in the history of life on Earth, during which single cells have emerged as collectives of genes, multicellular organisms have emerged as collectives of cells, and societies have emerged as collectives of multicellular organisms," Nadell said.

"At each of these transitions in complexity there has been and remains the threat of exploitation by single members pursuing their own interests at the expense of the collective as a whole," Nadell said. "Clarifying how exploitation can be averted is therefore critical to understanding how life has taken the various forms that exist today."

Like all bacteria, V. cholerae strains of which can cause cholera frequently lives in dense communities called biofilms. Also like other bacteria, V. cholerae secretes enzymes that break down the solid organic carbon- and nitrogen-containing molecules of which living things are composed so that the bacterium can feast on the components within. But not every individual bacterium will produce enzymes some will simply feed on what their organic-compound digesting neighbors produce. The researchers found two mechanisms by which this leeching is halted.

The vigilance of V. cholerae and other bacteria may also carry a larger benefit. The nitrogen and carbon that make up most of the planet's breathable air largely come from the digestion of organic materials by bacteria.

The researchers studied V. cholerae as it feasted on its preferred victual, chitin, a sugar-based molecule and the central element of many marine cells, exoskeletons and other appendages. The researchers write that sea animals alone shed an estimated 110 billion tons of chitin each year yet hardly any of it makes it to the ocean floor. Instead, the detritus is consumed by V. cholerae and other marine bacteria with its elements being recycled into the biosphere.

"If V. cholerae's system of extracellular digestion were compromised by exploitation," Nadell said, "the world's supply of carbon and nitrogen would become sequestered on a rapid geological timescale."


'/>"/>

Contact: Morgan Kelly
mgnkelly@princeton.edu
609-258-5729
Princeton University
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Sex matters for microbes
2. Oil- and metal-munching microbes dominate deep sandstone formations
3. The garden microbe with a sense of touch
4. Gut microbes affect MicroRNA response to bacterial infection
5. At AGU: Shale sequestration, water for energy & soil microbes
6. Argonne partners with Metropolitan Water Reclamation District to study Chicago River microbe population
7. Microbiologists reveal unexpected properties of methane-producing microbe
8. Special issue of Gut Microbes on Helicobacter pylori
9. Gut microbes in healthy kids carry antibiotic resistance genes
10. Lignin-feasting microbe holds promise for biofuels
11. Montana State team overcomes challenges, proves that microbes swim to hydrogen gas
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Tiny acts of microbe justice help reveal how nature fights freeloaders
(Date:2/10/2017)... -- Research and Markets has announced the ... Scientific and Commercial Aspects" to their offering. ... Biomarkers play ... therapy for selection of treatment as well for monitoring the ... disease in modern medicine. Biochip/microarray technologies and next generation sequencing ...
(Date:2/8/2017)... Feb. 7, 2017 Report Highlights ... The global synthetic-biology market ... billion by 2021, growing at a compound annual growth rate ... overview of the global markets for synthetic biology. - Analyses ... 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through ...
(Date:2/7/2017)... , Feb. 7, 2017 Zimmer Biomet ... in musculoskeletal healthcare, will present at the LEERINK Partners ... York Palace Hotel on Wednesday, February 15, 2017 at ... webcast of the presentation can be accessed at ... following the conference via Zimmer Biomet,s Investor Relations website ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/18/2017)... -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... their offering. ... The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, ... World. Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2015 ... markets. Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary ...
(Date:2/17/2017)... ... February 17, 2017 , ... Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA), ... maker of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), are launching a joint program to promote ... and support educational outreach efforts. , AMA and DJI will collaborate on other ...
(Date:2/16/2017)... , Feb. 16, 2017  ImMAGE Biotherapeutics (OTCMKTS: IMMG), an ... to find a better treatment for triple negative breast cancer ... France program. The YEi ... accelerator designed to help entrepreneurs grow their business in ... of eight American companies selected to complete an intensive one ...
(Date:2/16/2017)... DUBLIN , Feb. 16, 2017 ... the "Synthetic Biology: Global Markets" report to ... ... synthetic-biology products (synthetic genes, biobrick parts, delivery plasmids, chassis ... DNA synthesis and assembly, genome editing, bioinformatics and specialty ...
Breaking Biology Technology: