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Tinnitus discovery could lead to new ways to stop the ringing
Date:9/12/2011

cortical map should be the goal, so that the nerves get some input and stop their tinnitus activity," he said. "You don't want to leave these cells without sensory input."

"We changed our (brain training) strategy from one where we completely avoided the tinnitus domain to one where we directly engage it and try to redifferentiate or reactivate it, and we seem to be seeing improvement," Merzenich said.

Drugs can boost inhibitors

Another treatment strategy, Bao said, is to find or develop drugs that inhibit the spontaneous firing of the idle neurons in the auditory cortex. Hearing loss causes changes at junctions between nerve cells, the so-called synapses, that both excite and inhibit firing. His experiments showed that tinnitus is correlated with lower levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), but not with changes in the excitatory neurotransmitters.

He demonstrated that two drugs that increase the level of GABA eliminated tinnitus in rats. Unfortunately, these drugs have serious side effects and cannot be used in humans. He has applied for several grants to start screening drugs for their ability to enhance GABA receptor function, increase the synthesis of GABA, slow the re-uptake of GABA around nerve cells, or slow its enzymatic degradation.

"Our findings will guide the kind of research to find drugs that enhance inhibition on auditory cortical neurons," Bao said. "There are a lot of things we can do to change GABA functions, some of which could potentially alleviate tinnitus with fewer side effects."


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Contact: Robert Sanders
rsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley
Source:Eurekalert

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