Navigation Links
The first goat genome sets a good example for facilitating de novo assembly of large genomes
Date:12/23/2012

December 23, 2012, Shenzhen, China In a collaborative study published online today in Nature Biotechnology, researchers from Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BGI, and other institutes, have completed the first genome sequence of domestic goat by a robust approach integrated with next-generation sequencing (NGS) and whole-genome mapping (WGM) technologies. The goat genome is the first reference genome for small ruminant animals and may help to advance the understanding of distinct ruminants' genomic features from non-ruminant species. This work also yields a valuable experience for facilitating the de novo assemblies of large, complex genomes in the future.

Goats are recognized as an important member of the world livestock industry, and with many unique biological features. They are an important economic resource in many developing countries around the world, especially in China and India. However, despite their agricultural and biological importance, breeding and genetic studies of goats have been hampered by the lack of a high quality reference genome sequence. The goat genome sequence will be useful for facilitating the identification of SNP markers for marker-assisted breeding, and improving the utility of the goat as a biomedical model and bioreactor.

With the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS), draft assemblies are easy to generate nowadays. However, to finish a sequence to the chromosome level remains a hard nut to crack. In this study, the results show that a single NGS platform, when combined with whole-genome mapping technology, could produce a finished assembly much faster and with high quality than other currently available mapping strategies such as BACs or FISH. Through this integrated approach, researchers obtained the ~2.66 Gb goat reference genome from a female Yunnan black goat.

Transposable elements (TEs) are major components of mammalian genomes and contribute to gene and/or genome evolution. The TEs in goat genome are similar to those of cattle, and contain large numbers of ruminant-specific repeats, such as SINE-tRNA and SINE-BovA. It is reported that SINE-BovA repeat expanded primarily in the cattle genome. However, in this study, researchers found the SINE-tRNA repeat expanded specifically in the goat genome.

Through constructing a phylogenetic tree among goats, cattle, horses, dogs, opossums and humans, researchers found the goat shared a common ancestor with cattle about 23 million years ago. Further comparison analysis revealed 44 rapidly evolving genes under positive selection, seven of which are immune-related genes and three are pituitary hormone or related genes. The immune-related genes identified also exist in cattle. The findings suggest that the rapid evolution of pituitary hormones may be related to the different features between goat and cattle in milk production, development rates of the fetus and/or hair variation.

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in the immune system. In this study, the goat MHC was found to be located on chromosome 23 and contains two regions with length of 2.25 Mb and 360 kb, respectively. With the high quality genome assembly, further understanding of the goat MHC will be useful for immunological studies and vaccine development.

One of the distinguishing characteristics of mammals is the protective growth known as hair. It is produced by hair follicles within the skin, which could provide either protection (guard hairs) or insulation (underfur). The two major hair follicles include the primary hair follicle that produces only coat hair in all mammals, and the secondary hair follicle that can produce the cashmere or "fine hair" in certain mammals, including goats and antelopes. Despite a 2,500-year history and the extent of raw cashmere production, people are lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cashmere formation and development.

Researchers conducted transcriptomic analysis on the primary and secondary follicles of a cashmere goat, revealing 51 genes that are differentially expressed between the two types of hair follicles. Keratin and keratin-associated proteins are the main structural proteins of hair fibers, determining the quality of fiber together. In the study, 29 keratin genes and 30 keratin-associated protein genes were detected in both types of follicles. Interestingly, they found two keratin genes and ten keratin-associated protein genes were consistently differentially expressed between primary and secondary hair follicles, suggesting that the keratin-associated protein genes may be more important in determining the structure of cashmere fibers. In addition to the keratin genes and keratin-associated protein genes, researchers also found several enzymes of amino acid biosynthesis, with implications in regulating primary hair growth and hair cycle.

Xun Xu, Deputy Director of BGI, said, "The goat reference genome is an important stepping stone in the molecular breeding of cashmere goats, and will help to advance the comparative studies on ruminants. The transcriptomic analysis on the primary and secondary follicles will open a new way for better improving the quality cashmere wool."


'/>"/>
Contact: Jia Liu
liujia@genomics.cn
BGI Shenzhen
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Kessler Foundation implements Ekso Bionics first commercial robotic exoskeleton
2. Research reveals first evidence of hunting by prehistoric Ohioans
3. First model of how buds grow into leaves
4. American College of Rheumatology releases first classification criteria for polymyalagia rheumatica
5. Ottawa researchers to lead world-first clinical trial of stem cell therapy for septic shock
6. First complete full genetic map of promising energy crop
7. FirstMark Announces New Hire Jay Houtman as Southeast Regional Sales Manager
8. FirstMark Exhibiting at the Inaugural Atlanta Clinical Cardiology Update
9. New technology tracks sparrow migration for first time from California to Alaska
10. First mass extinction linked to marine anoxia
11. Scientists complete first-ever emperor penguin count from space
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/27/2016)... -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... their offering. The report forecasts ... grow at a CAGR of 12.28% during the period 2016-2020. ... market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the ... report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... WASHINGTON , June 22, 2016 On ... highly-anticipated call to industry to share solutions for the ... by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), explains that ... nationals are departing the United States ... criminals, and to defeat imposters. Logo - ...
(Date:6/16/2016)... , June 16, 2016 ... size is expected to reach USD 1.83 billion ... Grand View Research, Inc. Technological proliferation and increasing ... applications are expected to drive the market growth. ... , The development of advanced multimodal ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/30/2016)... ... November 30, 2016 , ... BEI ... Coil Actuator with a flexure design that ensures high alignment accuracy by preventing ... and is ideally suited where extreme precision is required, such as in medical ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... 2016 /PRNewswire/ - Portage Biotech Inc. ("Portage" or "the ... excited to announce the formation of EyGen, Ltd. ... ophthalmology assets through proof of concept. EyGen,s lead ... Portage Pharmaceuticals Limited and being developed for topical ... anterior segment diseases. This agent has the potential ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... VANCOUVER , Nov. 30, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -  Equicare ... coordination solutions, has been recognized as one of the ... 100, an annual international listing that distinguishes the top ... "We,ve pushed a great step forward this year continually ... growing our own customer base and team," says ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... 30. November 2016   Merck , ... die Unterzeichnung einer Reihe von Vereinbarungen mit ... Evotec AG Screeningleistungen für Mercks Palette genetischer ... Zugriff auf diese Bibliotheken in Kombination mit ... schnelleren Weg zur Ermittlung und Erforschung neuer ...
Breaking Biology Technology: