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Tau-induced memory loss in Alzheimer's mice is reversible
Date:2/16/2011

Amyloid-beta and tau protein deposits in the brain are characteristic features of Alzheimer disease. The effect on the hippocampus, the area of the brain that plays a central role in learning and memory, is particularly severe. However, it appears that the toxic effect of tau protein is largely eliminated when the corresponding tau gene is switched off. Researchers from the Max Planck Research Unit for Structural Molecular Biology at DESY in Hamburg have succeeded in demonstrating that once the gene is deactivated, mice with a human tau gene, which previously presented symptoms of dementia, regain their ability to learn and remember, and that the synapses of the mice also reappear in part. The scientists are now testing active substances to prevent the formation of tau deposits in mice. This may help to reverse memory loss in the early stages of Alzheimer disease in part, at least. (Journal of Neuroscience, February 16, 2011)

Whereas aggregated amyloid-beta protein forms insoluble clumps between the neurons, the tau protein accumulates inside them. Tau protein stabilises the tube-shaped fibers of the cytoskeleton, known as microtubules, which provide the "rails" for cellular transport. In Alzheimer disease, excess phosphate groups cause the tau protein to malfunction and form clumps (the 'neurofibrillary tangles'). As a result, nutrient transport breaks down and the neurons and their synapses die off. This process is accompanied by the initial stage of memory loss.

Together with colleagues from Leuven, Hamburg and Erlangen, Eva and Eckhard Mandelkow's team from the Max Planck Research Unit for Structural Molecular Biology generated regulatable transgenic mice with two different human tau gene variants that can be switched on and off again: one group was given a form of the protein that cannot become entangled (anti-aggregant), and a second was provided with the code for the strongly aggregating protein variant (pro-aggregant). The
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Contact: Eva-Maria Mandelkow
eva.mandelkow@mpasmb.desy.de
49-408-998-2810
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Source:Eurekalert

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