Navigation Links
Synapses recycle proteins for the release of neurotransmitters
Date:11/10/2010

Neurons communicate via chemical transmitters which they store in the bubble-like synaptic vesicles and release as required. To be able to react reliably to stimulation, neurons must have a certain number of "acutely releasable" vesicles. With the help of a new method, neuroscientists at the Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine in Gttingen have now discovered that neurons systematically recycle the protein components necessary for transmitter release and in this way guarantee the reliability of signal transmission in the brain. If this process is disrupted, the communication between the neurons quickly comes to a standstill and vital processes that rely on the rapid transmission of information, for example seeing or the instant identification of a sound source, become impossible to carry out. (Neuron, November 4, 2010)

Neurons transmit signals to each other via specialised contacts known as synapses. When a transmitting neuron is excited, it releases chemical transmitters that are discharged by tiny membrane-enclosed vesicles and then reach the recipient cell. The release of the transmitters is carried out through the fusion of the vesicles with the cell membrane - a process that requires the interaction of different protein components in the cell.

Before the transmitter vesicles can fuse with the neuronal membrane they must first be transformed into an active state. The corresponding biochemical process is referred to as priming. During this process, a structure known as a SNARE complex is constructed from protein components that are required for the rapid fusion of the vesicles with the cell membrane.

Headed by the Korean neuroscientist JeongSeop Rhee, a group of researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine in Gttingen have now developed a new method that can be used for the direct measurement of synaptic vesicle priming. The scientists made use of a method that, before now, could only be used for a few special cell types. "Instead of stimulating the neurons electrically, using our measuring system we fill them with a chemically packed signal containing calcium ions and then destroy the packaging with a flash of ultraviolet light," explains Rhee. This enabled the scientists to get around many of the complicated processes that normally precede vesicle fusion. They made the process possible by cultivating neurons in Petri dishes on minute islands of just 0.04 square millimetres in size.

With his new method, Rhee and his colleagues Andrea Burgalossi and Sangyong Jung discovered that two protein components, known as SNAPs, play an extremely important role in the recycling of SNARE complexes at synapses. Without SNAPs the recovery of the individual components of SNARE complexes is blocked, and the synapse function also blocked in time.

"We are particularly fascinated by our new method," says JeongSeop Rhee, "because it provides previously unavailable insights into the mechanisms of transmitter release from synapses." The new information about the priming role of the SNAP proteins is also very important. "A number of pharmaceutical companies are working on processes to influence the priming of synaptic vesicles." If the researchers succeed in regulating this process pharmacologically, it would be possible to develop completely new epilepsy treatments that would avoid many of the side affects associated with the current treatment process.


'/>"/>

Contact: JeongSeop Rhee
rhee@em.mpg.de
49-551-389-9694
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Sponges recycle carbon to give life to coral reefs
2. A win-win: U-pick pumpkin farms recycle urban leaves
3. Breast cancer cells recycle to escape death by hormonal therapy
4. Chemists concoct new agents to easily study critical cell proteins
5. LSUHSC study IDs proteins regulating water retention in salt-sensitive hypertension
6. New clues to how cancer-related proteins plasmin, thrombin lose inhibition
7. Key difference in how TB bacteria degrade doomed proteins
8. Model unfolds proteins gently
9. Slicing proteins with Occams Razor
10. Scripps Research scientists win $65 million in new grants to reveal form and function of proteins
11. RD114 envelope proteins provide an effective and versatile approach to pseudotype lentiviral vectors
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Synapses recycle proteins for the release of neurotransmitters
(Date:5/6/2017)... 2017 RAM Group , Singaporean ... breakthrough in biometric authentication based on a ... to perform biometric authentication. These new sensors are based ... by Ram Group and its partners. This sensor will ... chains and security. Ram Group is a next ...
(Date:4/13/2017)... , April 13, 2017 UBM,s Advanced ... will feature emerging and evolving technology through ... Innovation Summits will run alongside the expo portion of ... sessions, panels and demonstrations focused on trending topics within ... advanced design and manufacturing event will take place June ...
(Date:4/11/2017)... Florida , April 11, 2017 ... a security technology company, announces the appointment of independent Directors ... Bendheim to its Board of Directors, furthering the company,s ... ... of NXT-ID, we look forward to their guidance and benefiting ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:9/22/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Precision Periodontics and Implant Dentistry's Dr. Michael ... treatments. Drs. Hoge and Zalewsky are members of an elite class of dental ... option that produces real results. , "Like many of my colleagues, I was ...
(Date:9/22/2017)... ... 22, 2017 , ... The effectiveness of a new wound ... trials in the United States. (clinicaltrials.gov : NCT02973893) , To find out more ... your nearest participating clinic here https://factor-therapeutics.com/clinical-trials/ and discuss your condition with ...
(Date:9/21/2017)... ... ... Dr. Greg Leyer, Chief Scientific Officer of UAS Labs, will be presenting ... 12:10pm in the Probiotics Resource Center, Mandalay Bay Expo Hall. , “I am ... have shown impressive data in areas outside the gut including heart health, Vitamin D ...
(Date:9/21/2017)... , ... September 21, 2017 , ... ... client portal. Each relaunch of the portal includes new features that facilitate streamlined ... device companies seek to remain at the forefront of medical advancements, they rely ...
Breaking Biology Technology: