Navigation Links
Super-tough seed coat keeps Michaux's sumac on critically endangered list
Date:10/11/2011

It is one of the rarest shrubs in the southeastern United States, and for scientists trying to save it, the critically endangered Michaux's sumac (Rhus michauxii) is not cooperating.

So far botanists have exposed the hard-, thick-coated seeds of this native North American plant to boiling water, dry heat up to 284 degrees Fahrenheit and flames from a propane blowtorch to try to coax them into germination. Nothing has worked.

"Complete understanding of the germination requirements of endangered plants is an absolute requirement to effectively manage populations," Smithsonian research associate Jay Bolin and botanists Marcus Jones and Lytton Musselman write in a recent paper on this plant in Native Plants Journal.

So far, however, Michaux's sumac has not given up its secrets.

Because Michaux's sumac grows only in areas with few trees where the vegetation has been disturbed, it has long been assumed that its seeds germinate naturally following exposure to the high temperatures of a brush or forest fire. Decline of this plant has been attributed to the prevention and suppression of brush and forest fires by humans.

In Virginia it grows in only two places: on the grounds of the Virginia Army National Guard Maneuver Training Center in Fort Picket, and a mowed railway right-of-way in an undisclosed location.

In a recent series of germination experiments, the scientists exposed different sets of Michaux's sumac seeds to dry heat temperatures of 140, 176, 212, 248 and 284 degrees Fahrenheit, some sets for 5 minutes and other sets for 10 minutes. (The temperatures were determined based on maximum wildfire surface temperatures and burn times recorded in southeastern U.S. forests.)

The researchers found that temperatures above 212 degrees F. killed the seeds. Lower temperatures had virtually no impact on breaking the seed's dormancy.

The highest germination rates30 percentoccurred after sulfuric acid was poured on Michaux's sumac seeds and allowed to scarify (dissolve and weaken) the seed coats. This finding, from an experiment done in 1996, has led the researchers to their next experiment using birds.

"We are going to feed the seeds to quail and wild turkey to determine if that breaks the seed dormancy," says Bolin, a research associate with the Department of Botany at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and an assistant professor at Catawba College in Salisbury, N.C.

Seed passage through the digestive tracts of fruit-eating birds (and exposure to the acid in the bird's stomachs) may break the physical dormancy of these seeds and help disperse them as well, the scientists write.


'/>"/>

Contact: John Gibbons
gibbonsjp@si.edu
202-633-5187
Smithsonian
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Evolution keeps sex determination flexible
2. Texas-bound: Fungus keeps Texas leaf-cutter ants from spreading
3. Potential HIV drug keeps virus out of cells
4. For lambs, a pasture a week keeps blood suckers away
5. In elevated carbon dioxide, soybeans stumble but cheatgrass keeps on truckin
6. $1.7 million keeps McGill on edge
7. NASAs Terra satellite keeps eye on Eyjafjallajökulls ash plume
8. Spirit of ovarian cancer advocate keeps fundraising drive on track
9. Bacterial balance that keeps us healthy
10. Molecular chaperone keeps bacterial proteins from slow-dancing to destruction
11. A pet in your life keeps the doctor away
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Super-tough seed coat keeps Michaux's sumac on critically endangered list
(Date:4/15/2016)... April 15, 2016  A new partnership announced ... accurate underwriting decisions in a fraction of the ... priced and high-value life insurance policies to consumers ... With Force Diagnostics, rapid testing (A1C, Cotinine ... readings (blood pressure, weight, pulse, BMI, and activity ...
(Date:3/31/2016)... BOCA RATON, Florida , March 31, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... LEGX ) ("LegacyXChange" or the "Company") ... presentation for potential users of its soon to be ... The video ( https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyTLBzmZogV1y2D6bDkBX5g ) will also ... by the use of DNA technology to an industry ...
(Date:3/22/2016)... , March 22, 2016 ... report "Electronic Sensors Market for Consumer Industry by Type ... Others), Application (Communication & IT, Entertainment, Home ... Global Forecast to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, ... expected to reach USD 26.76 Billion by ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/2/2016)... ... May 02, 2016 , ... ... in mind, the fresh look and added functionality give the agricultural world a ... seen a dynamic shift in agriculture – from precision farming via satellites and ...
(Date:4/29/2016)... CA (PRWEB) , ... April 29, 2016 , ... ... leader in personalized pain medicine, is excited to announce the launch of the ... supporting public health studies, volunteerism, and education to promote the use of personalized ...
(Date:4/29/2016)... ... April 29, 2016 , ... Summit for Stem Cell has received ... of a patient-specific stem cell therapy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The Summit ... Loring at The Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, CA. , The ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... , April 28, 2016 ... reports the Company,s CEO  was featured in an ... Enter When VCs Fear To Tread: http://www.lifescienceleader.com/doc/accelerators-enter-when-vcs-fear-to-tread-0001 ... magazine is an essential business journal ... from emerging biotechs to Big Pharmas. Their content ...
Breaking Biology Technology: