Navigation Links
Study shows nearly 1/3 of human genome is involved in gingivitis

Gingivitis, which may affect more than one-half of the U.S. adult population, is a condition commonly attributed to lapses in simple oral hygiene habits. However, a new study shows that development and reversal of gingivitis at the molecular level is apparently much more complicated than its causes might indicate.

Research conducted jointly by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Procter & Gamble (P&G) Oral Care has found that more than 9,000 genes nearly 30 percent of the genes found in the human body are expressed differently during the onset and healing process associated with gingivitis. Biological pathways associated with activation of the immune system were found to be the major pathways being activated and critical to controlling the body's reaction to plaque build-up on the teeth. Additionally, other gene expression pathways activated during plaque overgrowth include those involved in wound healing, neural processes and skin turnover.

Results of the study are published today in the December 2009 edition of the Journal of Periodontology. This study is the first to successfully identify gene expression and biological pathways involved with the onset and healing process of gingivitis.

Gingivitis is characterized by gums that are red, swollen and tender and that bleed easily during brushing and flossing. If untreated, gingivitis can lead to periodontal disease, which has been studied extensively for its possible relation to heart disease, diabetes and pre-term birth. Researchers said that understanding how gingivitis develops and resolves on a molecular level can possibly provide critical insights into gum disease prevention, as well as new treatments.

"The study's findings demonstrate that clinical symptoms of gingivitis reflect complicated changes in cellular and molecular processes within the body," said Steven Offenbacher, D.D.S., Ph.D., the study's lead author and director of the UNC School of Dentistry-based Center for Oral and Systemic Diseases. "Understanding the thousands of individual genes and multiple systems involved in gingivitis will help explain exactly what is occurring in a person's body at the onset of the disease and how it relates to their overall health."

The build-up of plaque formed during the onset of gingivitis represents the overgrowth of bacteria as a biofilm on the teeth above and below the gum line. Biofilms can form in other parts of the body and are known to be involved with health conditions, such as urinary tract infections, ear infections and chronic sinusitis. Researchers believe learning about how the body interacts with bacteria overgrowth during gingivitis could provide insight into a variety of bio-film-associated diseases.

"Data generated by the study will be crucial in developing new approaches to treating gingivitis," said Leslie Winston, D.D.S., Ph.D., co-author of the study and Director of Professional and Scientific Relations at P&G Oral Care (makers of Crest and Oral-B). "We plan to conduct additional research to identify biomarkers of gum disease in at risk individuals and hope that this will lead to new and more advanced treatment options and preventative measures."

About the Study

The objective of this study was to understand gingivitis on a molecular level by identifying changes in gene expression taking place in the mouth during gingivitis onset and the healing process. Fourteen healthy individuals with mild gingivitis participated in the study. After baseline tooth cleanings, gingivitis was induced in each study participant, followed by the participants adhering to an oral hygiene regimen of twice-daily brushing and regular flossing. Gum tissue was collected at baseline, four weeks after the induction of gingivitis and one week after resuming the oral hygiene regimen of brushing and flossing.

Gene expression data was analyzed using gene chip technology that enabled the investigators to detect changes in the expression of more than 30,000 genes. By applying advanced genomics bioinformatics tools, the investigators were able to identify the biological pathways and gene expression patterns associated with gingivitis.

As part of the study findings, researchers identified several biological pathways triggered by the onset and healing of gingivitis, including those associated with immune response, energy metabolism, neural processes, vasculature, chemotaxis, wound healing and steroid metabolism.


Contact: Liz Bryan

Related biology news :

1. Childhood obesity indicates greater risk of school absenteeism, Penn study reveals
2. A study by the MUHC and McGill University opens a new door to understanding cancer
3. Study begins to reveal clues to the cause and progression of sepsis
4. Clones on task serve greater good, evolutionary study shows
5. New study warns limited carbon market puts 20 percent of tropical forest at risk
6. New study examines how rearing environment can alter navigation
7. Study links cat disease to flame retardants in furniture and to pet food
8. New continent and species discovered in Atlantic study
9. Study shows link between alcohol consumption and hiv disease progression
10. Feeling hot, hot, hot: New study suggests ways to control fever-induced seizures
11. Study finds environmental tests help predict hospital-acquired Legionnaires disease risk
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/10/2015)... 10, 2015  In this report, the ... of product, type, application, disease indication, and ... report are consumables, services, software. The type ... biomarkers, efficacy biomarkers, and validation biomarkers. The ... diagnostics development, drug discovery and development, personalized ...
(Date:11/2/2015)... 2, 2015  SRI International has been awarded a ... development services to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) PREVENT ... scientific expertise, modern testing and support facilities, and analytical ... and toxicology studies to evaluate potential cancer prevention drugs. ... PREVENT Cancer Drug Development Program is an NCI-supported pipeline ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... Oct. 29, 2015  Connected health pioneer, Joseph ... explosion of technology-enabled health and wellness, and the business ... The Internet of Healthy Things . ... smartphones even existed, Dr. Kvedar, vice president, Connected Health, ... care delivery, moving care from the hospital or doctor,s ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/25/2015)... /PRNewswire/ - Aeterna Zentaris Inc. (NASDAQ:  AEZS; TSX: AEZ) ... remain fundamentally strong and highlights the following developments: ... DSMB recommendation to continue the ZoptEC Phase 3 ... final interim efficacy and safety data , ... with heavily pretreated castration- and Taxane-resistant prostate cancer ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia , Nov. 24, 2015 ... the global contract research organisation (CRO) market. The ... to result in lower margins but higher volume ... With increased capacity and scale, however, margins in ... Contract Research Organisation (CRO) Market ( ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... November 24, 2015 , ... Copper is ... it is bound to proteins, copper is also toxic to cells. With a ... Polytechnic Institute (WPI) will conduct a systematic study of copper in the bacteria ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... , ... This fall, global software solutions leader SAP and AdVenture Capital brought ... pitch their BIG ideas to improve health and wellness in their schools. , Now, ... the title of SAP's Teen Innovator, an all-expenses paid trip to Super Bowl 50, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: