Finally, the mice lacking MIF produced significantly lower amounts than the normal mice of two proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). These are chemical messengers that cause inflammation, most often to fight infection or repair injury. When these proteins circulate without an infection to fight, the body experiences excess inflammation, which is associated with a variety of diseases depending on which cells are producing the proteins.
All of these observations led researchers to believe that MIF has one or more roles in the development and maintenance of Type 2 diabetes, Satoskar said.
The researchers next induced Type 2 diabetes in a different group of normal mice. Five days after the disease was induced, the scientists treated the animals daily for 30 days with the investigational drug, called CPSI-1306 by its manufacturer, Cytokine PharmaSciences Inc. Two doses of the drug, one dose 10 times stronger than the other based on body weight, were put in water and given to the mice by mouth.
After four weeks of treatment, the mice receiving both levels of the drug sustained blood sugar levels of below 200 milligrams per deciliter. Experts suggest that blood glucose after eating should remain below 180 milligrams per deciliter in people with diabetes. By comparison, the blood sugar levels in untreated diabetic mice exceeded 400 milligrams per deciliter.
"The blood sugar levels came down to very near normal in the treated mice," Satoskar said.
Similarly, levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were substantially lower in treated mice vs. untreated mice. Animals receiving the higher dose of the drug, 0.1 milligram per kilogr
|Contact: Abhay Satoskar|
Ohio State University