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Study finds 'mad cow disease' in cattle can spread widely in ANS before detectable in CNS
Date:7/8/2012

Philadelphia, PA, July 9, 2012 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or "mad cow disease") is a fatal disease in cattle that causes portions of the brain to turn sponge-like. This transmissible disease is caused by the propagation of a misfolded form of protein known as a prion, rather than by a bacterium or virus. The average time from infection to signs of illness is about 60 months. Little is known about the pathogenesis of BSE in the early incubation period. Previous research has reported that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) becomes affected by the disease only after the central nervous system (CNS) has been infected. In a new study published online in the August issue of The American Journal of Pathology, researchers found that the ANS can show signs of infection prior to involvement of the CNS.

"Our results clearly indicate that both pathways are involved in the early pathogenesis of BSE, but not necessarily simultaneously," reports lead investigator Martin H. Groschup, PhD, Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Riems, Germany.

To understand the pathogenesis of BSE, fifty-six calves between four and six months of age were infected orally with BSE from infected cattle. Eighteen calves were inoculated orally with BSE-negative material from calf brainstem as controls. The study also included samples collected from a calf that had died naturally of BSE. Tissue samples from the gut, the CNS, and the ANS were collected from animals every four months from 16 to 44 months after infection. The samples were examined for the presence of prions by immunohistochemistry. Samples were also used to infect experimental mice that are highly sensitive to a BSE infection.

A distinct accumulation of the pathological prion protein was observed in the gut in almost all samples. BSE prions were found in the sympathetic ANS system, located in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord,
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Contact: David Sampson
ajpmedia@elsevier.com
215-239-3171
Elsevier Health Sciences
Source:Eurekalert

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