Navigation Links
Study analyzes role of PARP enzyme in eukaryotes

An Ohio State University molecular biologist leveraged a supercomputer to help better define the family tree of a group of enzymes that have been implicated in a wide range of human diseases and are important targets for anti-cancer therapies.

Along with several OSU colleagues, Rebecca S. Lamb, Ph.D., an assistant professor of Molecular Genetics, recently analyzed the evolutionary history of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) superfamily.

These proteins are found in eukaryotes, a wide range of organisms animals, plants, molds, fungi, algae and protozoa whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. While PARP proteins can be found with any of these "supergroups," they have been most extensively studied in mammals.

"In these organisms, PARPs have key functions in DNA repair, genome integrity and epigenetic regulation," said Lamb. "More recently it has been found that proteins within the PARP superfamily have a broader range of functions that initially predicted."

The researchers used computers to identify 236 PARP proteins from 77 species across five of the six supergroups. Lamb then accessed the Glen Cluster at the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) to perform extensive phylogenetic analyses of the identified PARP regions.

"This is computationally intensive work that would have been impossible without the computer resources provided at OSC," Lamb said. "In particular, the ability to try a variety of tools that require a great deal of CPU and memory capabilities was essential for success."

Amongst other tools, she employed the PhyML3.0 software package, which fit a statistical model to the aligned sequence data and provided estimates for the model's parameters.

"Dr. Lamb's project is an excellent example of a scientist running a very domain-specific software package on our state-of-the-art systems," said Ashok Krishnamurthy, Ph.D., interim co-executive director of OSC. "While the center maintains a large collection of licensed and open-source software, there are occasions where very specialized or customized applications are required. Our staff members are very good at working with researchers to modify these codes to get them installed, running and delivering results."

Access to powerful OSC systems allowed the researchers to experiment with a wide variety of options and parameters, in order to achieve the best results, Lamb noted.

"PARPs are found in all eukaryotic supergroups for which sequence is available, but some individual lineages within supergroups have independently lost these genes," said Lamb. "The PARP superfamily can be subdivided into six branches or 'clades.' Two of these clades were likely found in the last common eukaryotic ancestor. In addition, we have identified PARPs in organisms in which they have not previously been described."

Three main conclusions were drawn from the study. First, the broad distribution and pattern of representation of PARP genes indicated to the researchers that the ancestor of all existing eukaryotes encoded proteins of this type. Second, the ancestral PARP proteins had different functions and activities. One of these proteins likely functioned in DNA damage response. Third, the diversity of the PARP superfamily is larger than previously documented, suggesting as more eukaryotic genomes become available, this gene family will grow in both number and type.


Contact: Mr. Jamie Abel
Ohio Supercomputer Center

Related biology news :

1. Fossil bird study describes ripple effect of extinction in animal kingdom
2. University of Missouri researcher study provides insight into how corn makes hormones
3. Rainwater harvest study finds roofing material affects water quality
4. A study reveals the keys to the locomotion of snails
5. Pathology study tracks uterine changes with mifepristone
6. David and Goliath viruses shed light on the origin of jumping genes: UBC study
7. Scientists study control of invasive tree in western US
8. UF Pine lsland pollen study leads to revision of states ancient geography
9. Nature study: Jefferson researchers unravel proteins elusive role in embryo and disease development
10. Combined molecular study techniques reveal more about DNA proteins
11. New study suggests ALS could be caused by a retrovirus
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
Study analyzes role of PARP enzyme in eukaryotes
(Date:3/31/2016)... , March 31, 2016 ... ) ("LegacyXChange" or the "Company") LegacyXChange is ... users of its soon to be launched online site ... ) will also provide potential shareholders ... of DNA technology to an industry that is notorious ...
(Date:3/23/2016)... 23, 2016 ... Gesichts- und Stimmerkennung mit Passwörtern     ... MESG ), ein führender Anbieter digitaler ... mit SpeechPro zusammenarbeitet, um erstmals dessen Biometrietechnologie ... die Möglichkeit angeboten, im Rahmen mobiler Apps ...
(Date:3/21/2016)... Massachusetts , March 22, 2016 ... facial recognition with passcodes for superior security   ... ), a leading provider of secure digital communications services, ... their biometric technology and offer enterprise customers, particularly those ... secure facial recognition and voice authentication within a mobile ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)... June 27, 2016  Global demand for enzymes ... through 2020 to $7.2 billion.  This market includes ... cleaning products, biofuel production, animal feed, and other ... and biocatalysts). Food and beverages will remain the ... increasing consumption of products containing enzymes in developing ...
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... ... innovative medical technologies, services and solutions to the healthcare market. The company's primary ... various distribution, manufacturing, sales and marketing strategies that are necessary to help companies ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... , June 24, 2016 Epic Sciences ... detects cancers susceptible to PARP inhibitors by targeting ... cells (CTCs). The new test has already been ... in multiple cancer types. Over 230 ... damage response pathways, including PARP, ATM, ATR, DNA-PK ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016   Boston Biomedical , an ... designed to target cancer stemness pathways, announced that ... Orphan Drug Designation from the U.S. Food and ... cancer, including gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Napabucasin is ... inhibit cancer stemness pathways by targeting STAT3, and ...
Breaking Biology Technology: