Navigation Links
Stem cell study opens door to undiscovered world of biology
Date:3/9/2014

DALLAS March 9, 2014 For the first time, researchers have shown that an essential biological process known as protein synthesis can be studied in adult stem cells something scientists have long struggled to accomplish. The groundbreaking findings from the Children's Medical Center Research Institute at UT Southwestern (CRI) also demonstrate that the precise amount of protein produced by blood-forming stem cells is crucial to their function.

The discovery, published online today in Nature, measures protein production, a process known as translation, and shows that protein synthesis is not only fundamental to how stem cells are regulated, but also is critical to their regenerative potential.

"We unveiled new areas of cellular biology that no one has seen before," said Dr. Sean Morrison, Director of the Children's Research Institute, Professor of Pediatrics, and the Mary McDermott Cook Chair in Pediatric Genetics at UT Southwestern Medical Center. "No one has ever studied protein synthesis in somatic stem cells. This finding not only tells us something new about stem cell regulation, but opens up the ability to study differences in protein synthesis between many kinds of cells in the body. We believe there is an undiscovered world of biology that allows different kinds of cells to synthesize protein at different rates and in different ways, and that those differences are important for cellular survival."

Dr. Adrian Salic's laboratory at Harvard Medical School chemically modified the antibiotic puromycin in a way that made it possible to visualize and quantify the amount of protein synthesized by individual cells within the body. Dr. Robert A.J. Signer, a postdoctoral research fellow in Dr. Morrison's laboratory and first author of the study, realized that this reagent could be adapted to measure new protein synthesis by stem cells and other cells in the blood-forming system.

What they came across was astonishing, Dr. Morrison said. The findings suggested that different types of blood cells produce vastly different amounts of protein per hour, and stem cells in particular synthesize much less protein than any other blood-forming cells.

"This result suggests that blood-forming stem cells require a lower rate of protein synthesis as compared to other blood-forming cells," said Dr. Morrison, the paper's senior author.

Researchers applied the findings to a mouse model with a genetic mutation in a component of the ribosome the machinery that makes proteins and the rate of protein production was reduced in stem cells by 30 percent. The scientists also increased the rate of protein synthesis by deleting the tumor suppressor gene Pten in blood-forming stem cells. In both instances, stem cell function was noticeably impaired.

Together, these observations demonstrate that blood-forming stem cells require a highly regulated rate of protein synthesis, such that increases or decreases in that rate impair stem cell function.

"Amazingly, when the ribosomal mutant mice and the Pten mutant mice were bred together, stem cell function returned to normal, and we greatly delayed, and in some instances entirely blocked, the development of leukemia," Dr. Morrison said. "All of this happened because protein production in stem cells was returned to normal. It was as if two wrongs made a right."

Many diseases, including degenerative diseases and certain types of cancers, are associated with mutations in the machinery that makes proteins. However, why this is the case has yet to be understood. Discoveries such as this raise the possibility that changes in protein synthesis are necessary for the development of those diseases.

"Many people think of protein synthesis as a housekeeping function, in that it happens behind the scenes in all cells," Dr. Signer said. "The reality is that a lot of housekeeping functions are highly regulated; they have just not been studied enough to recognize the difference among cells. I think what we are seeing with this study is just the tip of the iceberg, where the process of protein production is probably quite different in distinct cell types."


'/>"/>
Contact: Lisa Warshaw
lisa.warshaw@utsouthwestern.edu
214-648-3404
UT Southwestern Medical Center
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Study by UC Santa Barbara researchers suggests that bacteria communicate by touch
2. Law that regulates shark fishery is too liberal: UBC study
3. New study will help protect vulnerable birds from impacts of climate change
4. Study jointly led by UCSB researcher supports theory of extraterrestrial impact
5. BYU study: Using a gun in bear encounters doesnt make you safer
6. 15-year study: When it comes to creating wetlands, Mother Nature is in charge
7. Pycnogenol (French maritime pine bark extract) shown to improve menopause symptoms in new study
8. Crystal structure of archael chromatin clarified in new study
9. EU-funded study underlines importance of Congo Basin for global climate and biodiversity
10. University of Houston study shows BP oil spill hurt marshes, but recovery possible
11. Study demonstrates cells can acquire new functions through transcriptional regulatory network
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Stem cell study opens door to undiscovered world of biology
(Date:4/17/2017)... , April 17, 2017 NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... announces the filing of its 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K ... Commission. ... 10-K is available in the Investor Relations section of the Company,s ... the SEC,s website at http://www.sec.gov . 2016 Year ...
(Date:4/11/2017)... 2017 No two people are believed ... New York University Tandon School of Engineering and ... that partial similarities between prints are common enough ... phones and other electronic devices can be more ... lies in the fact that fingerprint-based authentication systems ...
(Date:4/5/2017)... 4, 2017 KEY FINDINGS The ... at a CAGR of 25.76% during the forecast period ... primary factor for the growth of the stem cell ... MARKET INSIGHTS The global stem cell market ... and geography. The stem cell market of the product ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:9/20/2017)... , ... September 20, 2017 , ... ... collaboration with Koch Agronomic Services (Koch) to feature new innovations aimed at helping ... broadcast first quarter 2018. American Farmer airs Tuesdays at 8:30aET on RFD-TV. Check ...
(Date:9/20/2017)... ... 20, 2017 , ... Diversity focused business accelerator, The Refinery , announced ... to uncover the top technology-driven, women-led startups in Boston, MA, New Haven/Hamden, CT, and ... entrepreneurial events going on that week – in Boston, it will be part of ...
(Date:9/20/2017)... ... September 20, 2017 , ... Proscia Inc. ... , a provider of whole slide imaging solutions, are hosting a pre-conference workshop ... entitled “Successfully Deploying a Best-in-Class Strategy for Digital Pathology,” will feature Proscia CEO, ...
(Date:9/20/2017)... Texas (PRWEB) , ... September 20, 2017 , ... From ... cell therapy succeeded after standard medicine failed. Many of these people had lost all ... Not Regression Free Download (pdf) , “Neil takes readers ...
Breaking Biology Technology: