The first top predators to walk on land were not afraid to bite off more than they could chew, a University of Toronto Mississauga study has found.
Graduate student and lead author Kirstin Brink along with Professor Robert Reisz from U of T Mississauga's Department of Biology suggest that Dimetrodon, a carnivore that walked on land between 298 million and 272 million years ago, was the first terrestrial vertebrate to develop serrated ziphodont teeth.
According to the study published in Nature Communications, ziphodont teeth, with their serrated edges, produced a more-efficient bite and would have allowed Dimetrodon to eat prey much larger than itself.
While most meat-eating dinosaurs possessed ziphodont teeth, fossil evidence suggests serrated teeth first evolved in Dimetrodon some 40 million years earlier than theropod dinosaurs.
"Technologies such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) and histology allowed us to examine these teeth in detail to reveal previously unknown patterns in the evolutionary history of Dimetrodon," Brink said.
The four-meter-long Dimetrodon was the top of the terrestrial food chain in the Early Permian Period and is considered to be the forerunner of mammals.
According to Brink and Reisz's research, Dimetrodon had a diversity of previously unknown tooth structures and were also the first terrestrial vertebrate to develop cusps teeth with raised points on the crown, which are dominant in mammals.
The study also suggests ziphodont teeth were confined to later species of Dimetrodon, indicating a gradual change in feeding habits.
"This research is an important step in reconstructing the structure of ancient complex communities," Reisz said.
"Teeth tell us a lot more about the ecology of animals than just looking at the skeleton."
"We already know from fossil evidence which animals existed at tha
|Contact: Gareth Trickey|
University of Toronto