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Staying ahead of Huntington's disease
Date:12/11/2013

Huntington's disease is a devastating, incurable disorder that results from the death of certain neurons in the brain. Its symptoms show as progressive changes in behavior and movements.

The neurodegenerative disease is caused by a defect in the huntingtin gene (Htt) that causes an abnormal expansion in a part of DNA, called a CAG codon or triplet that codes for the amino acid glutamine. A healthy version of the Htt gene has between 20 and 23 CAG triplets. The mutational expansion in Htt can lead to long repeats of the CAG triplet, resulting in the mutant protein having a long sequence of several glutamine residues called a polyglutamine tract. This CAG triplet expansion in unrelated genes is the root of at least nine neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease.

Rohit Pappu, PhD, professor of biomedical engineering at Washington University in St. Louis, and his colleagues in the School of Engineering & Applied Science and in the School of Medicine, are working to understand how expanded polyglutamine tracts form the types of supramolecular structures that are presumed to be toxic to neurons a feature that polyglutamine expansions share with proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

In recent work, Pappu and his research team showed that the amino acid sequences on either side of the polyglutamine tract within Htt can act as natural gatekeepers because they control the fundamental ability of polyglutamine tracts to form structures that are implicated in cellular toxicity. The results were published in PNAS Early Edition Nov. 25.

"These are progressive onset disorders," Pappu says. "The longer the polyglutamine tract gets, the more severe the disease, and the symptoms worsen with age. Our results are exciting because it means that any success we have in mimicking the effects of naturally occurring gatekeepers would be a significant step forward. And mechanistic studies are import
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Contact: Neil Schoenherr
nschoenherr@wustl.edu
314-935-5235
Washington University in St. Louis
Source:Eurekalert  

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