Navigation Links
Spanish scientists identify a new ancestral enzyme that facilitates DNA repair
Date:11/20/2013

Every day, the human body produces new cells to regenerate tissues and repair those that have suffered injury. Each time this happens, the cells make copies of their DNA that they will pass on to the resulting daughter cells. This process of copying the DNA, also called replication, is very delicate, given that it can generate severe alterations in the DNA that are associated with malignant transformation or ageing.

Researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), led by Juan Mndez, head of the DNA Replication Group, together with Luis Blanco, from the Severo Ochoa Molecular Biology Centre (CBM-CSIC), have discovered how a new human enzyme, the protein PrimPol, is capable of recognising DNA lesions and facilitate their repair during the DNA copying process, thus avoiding irreversible and lethal damage to the cells and, therefore, to the organism.

The results are published in the online edition of the journal Nature Structural and Molecular Biology. This study represents the continuation of a prior study, published recently by the same researchers in the journal Molecular Cell, in which they described the existence and biochemical properties of the PrimPol enzyme.

The DNA that resides in the nucleus of cells is the carrier of the genes, the instruction manuals that dictate how the cell works. "DNA structure is very stable, except during replication which normally takes approximately eight hours in human cells; during that period it becomes more fragile and can break", says Mndez. These eight hours are therefore critical for cells: they have to ensure the fidelity of copying DNA, and if errors are found or the DNA is damaged, they have to repair them as efficiently as possible.

AVOIDING COLLAPSE

DNA polymerases are the enzymes responsible for synthesising new DNA. "When a DNA polymerase finds an obstacle in the DNA [a chemical alteration introduced by solar ultraviolet radiation, for example], the copy is interrupted and the process stops until the error is repaired. This interruption can cause breaks in the DNA, translocations of fragments from some chromosomes to others, and even cause cell death or malignant transformation", says Mndez.

The research carried out by CNIO and CSIC demonstrates that the PrimPol enzyme prevents the copying process from being interrupted when there is damage: it recognises lesions and skips over them, and they are repaired when the copy is finished.

In evolutionary terms, PrimPol is a very old enzyme, and similar proteins have been found in archaebacteria, one of the first life forms that inhabited the Earth. "Millions of years ago, life conditions were more difficult [high salinity, extreme temperatures, etc.], so PrimPol has probably adapted to synthesising DNA in these conditions that encourage damage", says Mndez, adding that: "in exchange, these primitive DNA polymerases are less exact than the more evolved copying systems and can introduce mutations".

The scientists anticipate that this increase in mutations could have played a key role in the evolution of genomes, as well as having an impact on the ageing of cells and the development of cancer. Having identified and characterised this new protein in human beings, the researchers tell us that they are already studying its role in disease development.


'/>"/>

Contact: Nuria Noriega
comunicacion@cnio.es
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO)
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. EAU Patient Information now available in Spanish and Greek
2. A Spanish breakthrough allows the electroporation of cell cultures for less than 1 Euro
3. Spanish researchers design biomarkers for the detection of dengue and West Nile virus
4. Spanish consumers prefer national fish
5. Spanish scientist participate in the most comprehensive study ever done on ice
6. Spanish researcher releases a video showing a beetle from the inside
7. UT Dallas computer scientists create 3-D technique
8. Salk scientists for the first time generate mini-kidney structures from human stem cells
9. The Gorgons of the eastern Pacific: scientists describe 2 new gorgonian soft coral species
10. Bleeding symptom leads scientists to intracellular traffickers role in virus propagation
11. Patients and scientists join forces to tackle Friedreichs Ataxia
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/22/2016)... June 22, 2016 On Monday, the Department ... industry to share solutions for the Biometric Exit Program. ... and Border Protection (CBP), explains that CBP intends to ... the United States , in order ... defeat imposters. Logo - http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20160622/382209LOGO ...
(Date:6/9/2016)... June 9, 2016  Perkotek an innovation leader in attendance control systems is proud ... work hours, for employers to make sure the right employees are actually signing in, ... ... ... ...
(Date:6/2/2016)... 2, 2016   The Weather Company , an IBM ... an industry-first capability in which consumers will be able to ... ask questions via voice or text and receive relevant information ... Marketers have long sought an advertising solution that ... be personal, relevant and valuable; and can scale across millions ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... ... findings on what they believe could be a new and helpful biomarker for ... research. Click here to read it now. , Biomarkers are components ...
(Date:6/27/2016)... -- Liquid Biotech USA , Inc. ... Research Agreement with The University of Pennsylvania ("PENN") ... patients.  The funding will be used to assess ... outcomes in cancer patients undergoing a variety of ... to support the design of a therapeutic, decision-making ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... , ... While the majority of commercial spectrophotometers and fluorometers use the z-dimension ... are higher end machines that use the more unconventional z-dimension of 20mm. Z-dimension ... bottom of the cuvette holder. , FireflySci has developed several Agilent flow cell ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016   Boston ... of novel compounds designed to target cancer stemness ... has been granted Orphan Drug Designation from the ... treatment of gastric cancer, including gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) ... inhibitor designed to inhibit cancer stemness pathways by ...
Breaking Biology Technology: