Navigation Links
Soybean varieties viable in southern Indiana, resistant to root-knot nematode

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Purdue University researchers have identified several soybean varieties that grow well in areas of the Midwest like southern Indiana and are resistant to root-knot nematodes, a plant-destroying parasite with a recently confirmed presence in that part of the state.

The researchers verified that resistance in soybeans to one nematode parasite doesn't predict how well the plant will fight off another nematode species, said Andreas Westphal, assistant professor of plant pathology. Some of the varieties also were resistant to soybean cyst nematode.

"We were trying to identify soybean lines that will grow in Indiana and are root-knot nematode resistant," said Westphal, who is senior author of the report published online in the journal Crop Science and will be published in the March-April print issue.

The research team recently published a paper in Plant Health Progress that details the distribution of root-knot nematodes on soybeans in southwestern Indiana.

"We also wanted to find varieties that are nematode-tolerant," Westphal said. "In other words, the nematode is present in the soil, but the plant doesn't suffer a lot of damage."

Root-knot nematodes, including the species Meloidogyne incognita, infect soybeans in sandy loam soil and also reproduce on corn and the highly root-knot nematode-sensitive watermelon, two other major cash crops in the southern part of Indiana. The area, along with additional parts of the state, also suffers from other nematodes, including the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Root-knot nematodes are responsible for a loss of 93,000 tons of soybeans annually in the United States.

Other than resistant and tolerant plants, available methods to rid fields of the destructive organisms are not always practical or economically feasible, Westphal said. For example, chemicals that are effective against nematodes can be dangerous to the environment, people and animals.

A major concern for farmers is that soybeans, corn and watermelon are all susceptible to root-knot nematodes. Most farmers in southern Indiana plant crops in a soybean-corn-watermelon rotation. If the parasites infect the soybeans, then the organisms will be in the soil and can damage the subsequent crops planted in the same field.

"The availability of nematode-resistant varieties is important, not only for soybean production, but also for the whole rotation sequence because a resistant soybean crop will reduce the number of nematodes in the soil," Westphal said.

The study involved planting eight soybean strains in a commercial field near Vincennes, Ind. These were plant varieties that already were known to grow well in soil and weather similar to that found in southern Indiana. The field had a history of root-knot and soybean cyst nematode infestations. Westphal and his team also tested some of the same soybean lines in a field in which they introduced the nematodes and in a greenhouse where they used similar soil containing the root-knot nematodes.

Using plants known to be resistant to soybean cyst nematode, the researchers confirmed resistance to that nematode doesn't predict how resistant the plant will be to root-knot nematodes.

Although Indiana farmers previously were aware of the damage to their crops from soybean cyst nematode, it was only recently that they learned about root-knot infection of soybeans. They now know how to identify both nematodes and how these parasites damage crops.

Damage by plant-parasitic nematodes usually appears in patches in fields because where nematodes are introduced determines the infestation area. The type of soil and environmental conditions also play a role in the parasite's survival.

Both the soybean cyst and root-knot nematode feed on roots, robbing the plant of needed nutrients and water. The lemon-shaped soybean cyst nematode is easy to spot on the root because it stays on the outside. These pinhead-sized nematodes are white, then yellow, and finally become brown as they mature. The nematode-induced cysts are much smaller than the so-called "nodules," which are structures induced by the beneficial bacterium rhizobium. Rhizobium association aids the plant in nutritional nitrogen absorption.

The root-knot nematode induces big clumps, or galls, on the root that look a bit like a wart or a tree knot, and the deformations are much bigger than the signs caused by the soybean cyst nematode. The nematode galls have irregular tumorlike shapes, in contrast to the spherical shape of nodules caused by rhizobium association.

Next the researchers will try to determine varieties of cover crops that are nematode-resistant. Cover crops are used over the winter to control erosion but can provide a habitat for the parasites. This means that larger populations of the parasites are present when crops are planted in the spring.

"We hope that we can improve nematode suppression in the entire crop sequence to improve the yield of the cash crops," Westphal said.


Contact: Susan A. Steeves
Purdue University

Related biology news :

1. DOE JGI releases soybean genome assembly to enable worldwide bioenergy research efforts
2. Deadlines for 2007 National Soybean Rust Symposium fast approaching
3. UCR researchers awarded nearly $1.7M to develop improved cowpea varieties
4. Species still have more viable offspring if they can choose their best mate
5. Voyage to Southern Ocean aims to study air-sea fluxes of greenhouse gases
6. Antarctic expedition provides new insights into the role of the Southern Ocean for global climate
7. Southern California institutions to collaborate on stem cell research
8. Climate change and life in the Southern Ocean
9. MIT Holding, Georgia Southern University, and MEVLABS successfully test the PROVECTOR
10. New southernpeas developed by ARS, cooperators
11. Gene that controls ozone resistance of plants could lead to drought-resistant crops
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
Soybean varieties viable in southern Indiana, resistant to root-knot nematode
(Date:10/1/2015)... , Oct. 1, 2015  Biometrics includes diverse ... human body characteristics, such as fingerprints, eye retinas, ... Adoption of biometrics technology has been constantly increasing ... last five years. In addition to the most ... fingerprint recognition, other means of biometric authentication are ...
(Date:9/30/2015)... global glucose monitoring device and diabetes management market is valued ... on the industry from Kalorama Information. Sales in the traditional glucose ... continuous glucose monitoring and sensor segment, according to the healthcare ... in its latest report, The Global Glucose Monitoring Market ... , ...
(Date:9/28/2015)... , Sept. 28, 2015 CLEAR, ... that its expedited traveler service is coming ... transforms travel, bringing a frictionless experience, serious ... "CLEAR offers our travelers an ... service," said Jim Smith , Executive ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/13/2015)... 13, 2015  According to Kalorama Information, the ... $102 billion by the end of 2015. Clinical ... industry, as it is estimated that approximately 80% ... tests. In addition to diagnosing patients, clinical lab ... progression, monitor drug treatment and conditions, and determine ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... Exotic Automation & ... solutions and components, is opening its latest Parker Store retail location in Ann, ... Exotic’s second major expansion in Metropolitan Detroit in less than a year. The ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... SonaCare Medical, LLC, ... that it received de novo clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... of prostate tissue. Sonablate® is the first High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) device ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... Jersey (PRWEB) , ... October 13, 2015 , ... ... enhance the educational opportunities for school age children in the areas of Science, ... for all sectors of the national economy, and the program aims to increase ...
Breaking Biology Technology: