Navigation Links
Snow melts faster under trees than in open areas in mild climates
Date:11/13/2013

It's a foggy fall morning, and University of Washington researcher Susan Dickerson-Lange pokes her index finger into the damp soil beneath a canopy of second-growth conifers. The tree cover is dense here, and little light seeps in among the understory of the Cedar River Municipal Watershed about 30 miles east of Seattle.

She digs a small hole in the leaf-litter soil, then pushes a thumb-sized device, called an iButton, about an inch beneath the surface. If all goes well, this tiny, battery-powered instrument will collect a temperature reading every hour for 11 months. Researchers hope this tool and a handful of other instruments will help them map winter temperatures throughout the watershed as they track snow accumulation and melt.

This fieldwork piggybacks on a recent finding by Jessica Lundquist, a UW associate professor of civil and environmental engineering, and her lab that shows that tree cover actually causes snow to melt more quickly on the western slopes of the Pacific Northwest's Cascade Mountains and other warm, Mediterranean-type climates around the world. Alternatively, open, clear gaps in the forests tend to keep snow on the ground longer into the spring and summer. Lundquist and her colleagues published their findings online this fall in Water Resources Research.

Common sense says that the shade of a tree will help retain snow, and snow exposed to sunlight in open areas will melt. This typically is the case in regions where winter temperatures are below freezing, such as the Northeast, Midwest and most of central and eastern Canada. But in Mediterranean climates where the average winter temperatures usually are above 30 degrees Fahrenheit a different phenomenon occurs. Snow tends to melt under the tree canopy and stay more intact in open meadows or gaps in a forest.

This happens in part because trees in warmer, maritime forests radiate heat in the form of long-wave radiation to a greater degree than the sky does. Heat radiating from the trees contributes to snow melting under the canopy first.

"Trees melt our snow, but it lasts longer if you open up some gaps in the forest," Lundquist said. "The hope is that this paper gives us more of a global framework for how we manage our forests to conserve snowpack."

For the study, Lundquist examined relevant published research the world over that listed paired snow measurements in neighboring forested and open areas; then she plotted those locations and noted their average winter temperatures. Places with similar winter climates parts of the Swiss Alps, western Oregon and Washington, and the Sierra Nevada range in California all had similar outcomes: Snow lasted longer in open areas.

"It's remarkable that, given all the disparities in these studies, it did sort out by climate," Lundquist said.

Even in the rainy Pacific Northwest, we depend on yearly snowpack for drinking water and healthy river flows for fish, said Rolf Gersonde, who designs and implements forest restoration projects in the Cedar River Watershed. Reservoirs in the western Cascades hold approximately a year's supply of water. That means when our snowpack is gone usually by the summer solstice our water supply depends on often meager summer rainfall to get us through until fall, he said. Snowpack is a key component of the Northwest's reservoir storage system, so watershed managers care about how forest changes due to management decisions or natural disturbances may impact that melting timetable.

The UW's research in the watershed has been a beneficial partnership, researchers say. The 90,000-acre watershed is owned by the City of Seattle and provides drinking water to 1.4 million people. The area now is closed to recreation and commercial logging, but more than 80 percent of the land was logged during the early 20th century, and a large swath of dense, second-growth trees grows there now. Watershed managers have tried thinning and cutting gaps in parts of the forest to encourage more tree and plant diversity that then leads to more diverse animal habitat offering the UW a variety of sites to monitor.

The UW researchers acknowledge that temperature is a very broad predictor of snowmelt behavior, yet they expect their theory to hold true as they look more closely at the relationship between climate and snowmelt throughout the Pacific Northwest. They are collaborating with researchers at Oregon State University and the University of Idaho, and are ramping up a citizen science project asking hikers and snowshoers to share snow observations.

"This is really just a start," said Dickerson-Lange, a doctoral student in Lundquist's lab who is coordinating the citizen-science observations. "The plan is to refine this model. With climate change, a cold forest now might behave more like a warm forest 100 years from now. We want to be able to plan ahead."


'/>"/>

Contact: Michelle Ma
mcma@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Laser liposuction melts fat, results in tighter skin
2. Mafic melts, methane seeps, 2 million waves, foreign magma, and the invisible hand
3. Carbon storage recovers faster than plant biodiversity in re-growing tropical forests
4. Crafting a better enzyme cocktail to turn plants into fuel faster
5. Bigger, better, faster
6. Mercy Lab Offers Faster On-demand Diabetes Testing, Cellular Studies
7. Researchers develop a faster method to identify Salmonella strains
8. Federal Government Organization achieves cleaner and faster Clinical Study Data using Tablet PCs from TabletKiosk
9. Ground-level ozone falling faster than model predicted
10. Disease knowledge may advance faster with CRISPR gene probing tool
11. Biomass analysis tool is faster, more precise
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Snow melts faster under trees than in open areas in mild climates
(Date:3/11/2016)... HANOVER, Germany , March 11, 2016 ... - Cross reference: Picture is available at AP Images ( ... scanner from DERMALOG will be used to produce the new refugee ... of other biometric innovations, at CeBIT in Hanover ... LF10 scanner from DERMALOG will be used to produce the new ...
(Date:3/10/2016)... 10, 2016 --> ... report "Identity and Access Management Market by Component (Provisioning, ... Governance), by Organization Size, by Deployment, by Vertical, and ... MarketsandMarkets, The market is estimated to grow from USD ... 2020, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of ...
(Date:3/9/2016)... , March 9, 2016 This BCC ... future states of the RNA Sequencing (RNA Seq) market ... such as instruments, tools and reagents, data analysis, and ... various segments of the RNA-Sequencing market such as RNA-Sequencing ... Identify the main factors affecting each segment and forecast ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/22/2016)... ... May 22, 2016 , ... Doctors in Rome say micronutrients found in ... malignant mesothelioma. Surviving Mesothelioma has just posted an article on the new research. ... Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine evaluated more than 150 studies on polyphenols ...
(Date:5/20/2016)... ... 2016 , ... Korean researchers say Manumycin A triggers apoptosis, or natural cell ... treat the disease. Surviving Mesothelioma has just posted an article on the new study. ... based their mesothelioma study on the fact the Manumycin A, a derivative of Streptomyces ...
(Date:5/19/2016)... MAPLE RIDGE, British Columbia , May 19, ... of AdvanTec Global Innovations Inc. (AGI), based out ... recently added Greenlane Biogas Ltd. to its ... a 2-year contract manufacturing agreement. AFS along with ... Bending Technologies (ABT) is a vertically integrated industrial ...
(Date:5/19/2016)... SAN DIEGO , May 19, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... (OTCBB: RGBP), (OTC PINK: RGBP) and (OTC PINK: RGBPP) announced ... at creating the first cord blood based cancer ... a provisional patent application, Regen described a generation ... activity was potentiated by gene silencing.  The product ...
Breaking Biology Technology: