Navigation Links
Single mutation gives virus new target
Date:10/21/2013

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] In a new study published online in the journal PLOS Pathogens, an international team of scientists showed that by swapping a single amino acid they could change the sugar to which the human BK polyomavirus will binds on the surface of cells. The BK polyomavirus lost the ability to bind its usual target sugar and instead "preferred" the same sugar as its cousin SV40 polyomavirus, which is active in monkeys.

The researchers were working in cell cultures with safe pseudoviruses, which cannot spread, so they did not show that the pseudovirus changed its infectivity from one species to another, but the finding provides a novel demonstration of how easily the binding target of a virus can change as its structure mutates and evolves.

Different cells have different bindings targets on their surfaces. A change in a virus's binding target preference can be a key step in changing how that virus would affect different cells in a victim or move on to a different species.

"I think it's one of the first, if not the first, times that a receptor switch of this nature has been identified," said Brown University virologist Walter Atwood, a corresponding author of the paper published Oct. 10, 2013. "There are dozens of viruses that use these kinds of sugars as receptors. What we're showing is that it doesn't take much to convert from using one type of sugar to using another type of sugar. It helps us to understand evolutionarily how these viruses may adapt to a new host."

Brown postdoctoral researcher Stacy-ann Allen, one of two lead authors on the paper, said the team learned of the single amino acid difference by comparing high-resolution structural models of the two polyomaviruses bound to their favorite sugars. Collaborators, including co-lead author Ursula Neu and co-correspondng author Thilo Stehle at the University of Tbingen in Germany, produced those models using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

"We had the structures and sequences of both BK and SV40, and they are relatively similar in their amino acid identity," Allen said. "So when you see minute differences between them, you can target these differences to ask whether this difference allows for different infection in different hosts."

Sure enough, when Allen made the change at amino acid site 68 in the BK polyomavirus, it switched from binding the "ganglioside" sugar GD3 to binding with GM1.

Allen and colleagues tested this not only in cells in the lab, but also by dropping the viruses onto microarrays of binding target sugars.

And for even more confirmation, the Brown scientists sent the mutated BK viruses back to Germany for more NMR resolution.

"The NMR spectrum of the BK and the SV40 were identical," Atwood said, "They thought they had mixed up the samples. They were identical in terms of their ability to bind to GM1, the monkey receptor."

It may take several steps beyond a switch of receptor preference for a virus to infect new cells in the body or entirely new species, but such a switch could be a key step in more viruses than just the polyomavirus family, the scientists said. Others seem to switch preferences fairly quickly.

"Prominent examples include different serotypes of adenoviruses, the canine and feline paroviruses, as well as avian, swine, and human influenza viruses," they wrote in PLOS Pathogens.


'/>"/>

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Improved smartphone microscope brings single-virus detection to remote locations
2. Genomes of cholera bacteria from Haiti confirm epidemic originated from single source
3. Single-cell transfection tool enables added control for biological studies
4. Philips CX50 xMATRIX now offers world-class interventional and diagnostic features on single portable system
5. How much a single cell breathes
6. Cat and mouse: A single gene matters
7. Dartmouth researchers find there is no single sexy chin
8. Sleator lab identifies single point mutation in Listeria monocytogenes
9. Single gene might explain dramatic differences among people with schizophrenia
10. Extremely high estrogen levels may underlie complications of single-birth IVF pregnancies
11. Little did we know about beetle diversity: Astonishing 138 new species in a single genus
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Single mutation gives virus new target
(Date:1/22/2016)... 22, 2016 ... the "Global Biometrics Market in Retail ... --> http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/p74whf/global_biometrics ) has ... Biometrics Market in Retail Sector 2016-2020" ... Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/p74whf/global_biometrics ) ...
(Date:1/20/2016)... , Jan. 20, 2016  Synaptics Incorporated (NASDAQ: ... interface solutions, today announced sampling of S1423, its ... wearables and small screen applications including smartwatches, fitness ... Supporting round and rectangular shapes, as well as ... performance with moisture on screen, while wearing gloves, ...
(Date:1/13/2016)... , January 13, 2016 ... the addition of the  "India Biometrics ... & Forecast (2015-2020)"  report to ... ) has announced the addition of ... Market - Estimation & Forecast (2015-2020)" ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/4/2016)... 2016 Beike Biotechnology, the Shenzhen ... a ceremony in late 2015 to mark their successful ... 2016. --> --> ... Personalized Cell Therapy" was hosted by the Shenzhen Cell ... subsidiaries of Beike Biotechnology Co., Ltd. ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... -- --> --> Q ... to provide the following update on recent corporate developments. ... 3 months we have significantly increased our cash position through ... a result, we have positioned ourselves to execute on the ... expect that development to continue on schedule. ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... Sinovac Biotech Ltd. ("Sinovac" or the "Company") (NASDAQ: ... China , today announced that the ... February 4, 2016 a preliminary non-binding proposal letter, dated ... V-Ming ( Shanghai ) Investment Holdings Co., ... Shenzhen ) Fund Management Co., Ltd., Beijing ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... ... , ... Many of the engineers at FireflySci, Inc. have been manufacturing quartz ... from other cuvette manufacturers is their supercharged customer service and their extensive database of ... steady flow of inside information, they have recently revamped their manufacturing techniques to reduce ...
Breaking Biology Technology: