Navigation Links
Simple drug treatment may prevent nicotine-induced SIDS: Study
Date:6/3/2009

A new study has identified a specific class of pharmaceutical drugs that could be effective in treating babies vulnerable to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), because their mothers smoked during pregnancy.

According to researchers at McMaster University, exposure of the fetus to nicotine results in the inability to respond to decreases in oxygenknown as hypoxiawhich may result in a higher incidence of SIDS. In the same study on rats, they found that the diabetic medication 'glibenclamide' can reverse the effects of nicotine exposure, increasing the newborn's ability to respond to hypoxia and likely reducing the incidence of SIDS.

The findings are published today in the Journal of Neuroscience.

"During birth the baby rapidly changes its physiology and anatomy so that it can breathe on its own," explains Josef Buttigieg, lead author who conducted his research as a PhD graduate student in the department of Biology. "The stress of being born induces the release of the hormones adrenaline and noradrenalinecollectively called catecholaminesfrom the adrenal glands. During birth, these hormones in turn signal the baby's lungs to become ready for air breathing."

For some months after birth, the adrenal glands act as a critical oxygen sensor. A drop in blood oxygen levels will stimulate the release of catecholamines, which in turn signals the baby to take a deep breath, when an infant rolls on its face or has an irregular breathing pattern during sleep, for example. However, the ability to release those hormones during moments of apnea or asphyxia is impaired due to nicotine exposure.

During those episodes, specific proteins sensitive to hypoxia stimulate the cell to release catecholamines. A secondary class of proteins then acts as a 'brake', ensuring the cells do not over excite themselves during this stressful time. However, exposure of the fetus to nicotine results in higher levels of this brake protein.

"The result is like trying to drive your car with the parking brake on. You might go a little bit, but the brakes hold you back," explains Buttigieg. "In this case, the adrenal glands do not release catecholamines during hypoxia for example during birth or a self-asphyxiation episodeoften resulting in death."

But when researchers administered the drug glibenclamide in laboratory rats, which override the brake protein, the adrenal glands were able to respond to oxygen deprivation, therefore reversing the lethality of hypoxia.

"Our initial goal was really to understand how the nervous system regulates oxygen sensitivity of cells in the adrenal gland at a basic research level," says Colin Nurse, academic advisor on the study and a professor in the department of Biology. "We speculated that chemicals released from nerves might interact with adrenal cells and cause them to lose oxygen sensitivity. It turns out that nicotine mimics the effects of one of these chemicals, thereby allowing us to test the idea. The present study was significant in that it led to a mechanistic understanding of how nicotine works in this context."


'/>"/>

Contact: Michelle Donovan
donovam@mcmaster.ca
905-304-1433
McMaster University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Safe water: simpler method for analyzing radium in water samples cuts testing time
2. Gene regulation in humans is closer than expected to simple organisms
3. Researchers develop simple method to create natural drug products
4. Simple reason helps males evolve more quickly
5. Simple recipe turns human skin cells into embryonic stem cell-like cells
6. Simple screening questionnaire for kidney disease outperforms current clinical practice guidelines
7. Salt-tolerant gene found in simple plant nothing to sneeze at
8. Simple model cell is key to understanding cell complexity
9. Research measures movement of nanomaterials in simple model food chain
10. Genome of simplest animal reveals ancient lineage, confounding array of complex capabilities
11. At risk for peripheral arterial disease? Simple quiz provides key so you can circulate better
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/11/2017)... PALM BEACH GARDENS, Fla. , April 11, ... biometric identity management and secure authentication solutions, today ... million contract by Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity ... technologies for IARPA,s Thor program. "Innovation ... the onset and IARPA,s Thor program will allow ...
(Date:4/5/2017)... 5, 2017  The Allen Institute for Cell Science ... a one-of-a-kind portal and dynamic digital window into the ... the first application of deep learning to create predictive ... lines and a growing suite of powerful tools. The ... and future publicly available resources created and shared by ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... 30, 2017  On April 6-7, 2017, Sequencing.com will ... hackathon at Microsoft,s headquarters in ... focus on developing health and wellness apps that provide ... the Genome is the first hackathon for personal ... largest companies in the genomics, tech and health industries ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:8/17/2017)... CA (PRWEB) , ... August 17, 2017 , ... ... for cancer research and personalized medicine, today announced the launch of a new ... City, Missouri. The study’s goal is to evaluate the potential for early detection ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... , ... August 16, 2017 ... ... introduce the Fluidnatek® Electrospinning and Electrospraying line of ... scales from table-top equipment for the lab to fully automated pilot plants ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... ... August 16, 2017 , ... While art and science are often ... connected than one might think. A Mesh Is Also a Snare, a group ... City Science Center’s Esther Klein Gallery (EKG) on August 17 and run through September ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... MN (PRWEB) , ... August 16, 2017 , ... ... our third U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) inspection at our Dilworth, MN ... No 483 was issued. This inspection was conducted as part of a routine ...
Breaking Biology Technology: