Long recurrence interval of faulting beyond the 2005 Kashmir earthquake around the northwestern margin of the Indo-Asian collision zone
Hisao Kondo, AIST, Active Fault Research Center, Site7, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567, Japan. Pages 731-734.
Kondo's successful paleoseismic trench survey in Pakistan reveals that the 2005 Kashmir earthquake occurred on the relatively minor intra-plate active fault, not on the plate boundary mega-thrust of the Indo-Asian collision zone, in contrast with the damage and loss of the earthquake.
Origin of microbiological zoning in groundwater flows
Craig Bethke, Dept. of Geology, 1301 West Green St, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. Pages 739-742.
Freshwater aquifers contain large numbers of various types of bacteria and other microbes that control the chemistry and composition of the water in the aquifer. Microbes, for example, degrade pollution into harmless chemicals and dictate whether natural groundwater contains undesirable levels of iron and arsenic. Rather than being distributed evenly through the subsurface, microbial communities in an aquifer are commonly segmented into zones that appear to be dominated by a single type of microbe, and scientists have been studying the origin of this phenomenon. Two working explanations, one based on thermodynamics and the other on chemical kinetics, have been proposed, but neither has proved fully satisfactory. Bethke's study shows that by integrating principles of population dynamics with the equations of thermodynamics and kinetics, the
|Contact: Christa Stratton|
Geological Society of America