Navigation Links
Scientists unveil a molecular mechanism that controls plant growth and development
Date:1/30/2014

Barcelona, Thursday 30 January, 2014.- A joint study published in Cell by the teams headed by Miquel Coll at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and the Institute of Molecular Biology of CSIC, both in Barcelona, and Dolf Weijers at the University of Wageningen, in the Netherlands, unravels the mystery behind how the plant hormones called auxins activate multiple vital plant functions through various gene transcription factors.

Auxins are plant hormones that control growth and development, that is to say, they determine the size and structure of the plant. Among their many activities, auxins favor cell growth, root initiation, flowering, fruit setting and delay ripening. Auxins have practical applications and are used in agriculture to produce seedless fruit, to prevent fruit drop, and to promote rooting, in addition to being used as herbicides. The biomedical applications of these hormones as anti-tumor agents and to facilitate somatic cell reprogramming (the cells that form tissues) to stem cells are also being investigated.

The effects of auxins in plants was first observed by Darwin in 1881, and since then this hormone has been the focus of many studies. However, although it was known how and where auxin is synthesized in the plant, how it is transported, and the receptors on which it acts, it was unclear how a hormone could trigger such diverse processes.

At the molecular level, the hormone serves to unblock a transcription factor, a DNA-binding protein, which in turn activates or represses a specific group of genes. Some plants have more than 20 distinct auxin-regulated transcription factors. They are called ARFs (Auxin Response Factors) and control the expression of numerous plant genes in function of the task to be undertaken, that is to say, cell growth, flowering, root initiation, leaf growth etc.

Using the Synchrotron Alba, near Barcelona, and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, in Grenoble, Dr. Miquel Coll, a structural biologist and his team analyzed the DNA binding mode used by various ARFs. For this purpose, the scientists prepared crystals of complexes of DNA and ARF proteins obtained by Dolf Weijers team in Wageningen, and then shot the crystals with high intensity X-rays in the synchrotron to resolve their atomic structure. The resolution of five 3D structures has revealed why a given transcription factor is capable of activating a single set of genes, while other ARFs that are very similar with only slight differences trigger a distinct set.

"Each ARF recognizes and adapts to a particular DNA sequence through two binding arms or motifs that are barrel-shaped, and this adaptation differs for each ARF," explains Roeland Boer, postdoctoral researcher in Miquel Coll's group at IRB Barcelona, and one of the first authors of the study.

The ARF binding mode to DNA has never been described in bacteria or animals. "It appears to be exclusive to plants, but we cannot rule out that it is present in other kingdoms. Our finding is highly relevant because we have revealed the ultimate effect of a hormone that controls plant development on DNA, that is to say, on genes." says Miquel Coll.


'/>"/>

Contact: Sònia Armengou
armengou@irbbarcelona.org
34-934-037-255
Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Scientists develop an engineered cardiac tissue model to study the human heart
2. Scientists discover that thyroid cancer cells become less aggressive in outer space
3. Scientists find genetic mechanism linking aging to specific diets
4. University of Hawaii scientists make a big splash
5. Plant scientists unravel a molecular switch to stimulate leaf growth
6. Scientists reveal why life got big in the Earths early oceans
7. Johns Hopkins scientists identify a key to bodys use of free calcium
8. Scripps Florida scientists offer new insight into neuron changes brought about by aging
9. Spider silk ties scientists up in knots
10. York scientists investigate the fiber of our being
11. Scientists warn: Conservation work in zoos is too random
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Scientists unveil a molecular mechanism that controls plant growth and development
(Date:2/3/2016)... PUNE, India , February 3, 2016 ... to the new market research report "Automated Fingerprint Identification ... (Tenprint Search, Latent Search), Application (Banking & Finance, Government, ... 2020", published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is expected to ... estimated CAGR of 21.0% between 2015 and 2020. The ...
(Date:2/2/2016)... 2016 This BCC Research report provides ... reviewing the recent advances in high throughput ‘omic ... field forward. Includes forecast through 2019. ... and opportunities that exist in the bioinformatic market. ... as well as IT and bioinformatics service providers. ...
(Date:2/2/2016)... 2, 2016  Based on its recent analysis ... recognizes US-based Intelligent Retinal Imaging Systems (IRIS) with ... for New Product Innovation. IRIS, a prominent cloud-based ... America , is poised to set the ... retinopathy market. The IRIS technology presents superior price-performance ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/11/2016)... ... 11, 2016 , ... Global Stem Cells Group, ... Ecuador. The new facility will provide advanced protocols and state-of-the-art techniques in cellular ... , The new GSCG clinic is headed by four prominent Ecuadorian physicians, ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... , Feb.10, 2016 ASAE is introducing a ... Management Companies (AMC) the option of joining or renewing ... fee determined by staff size, every employee in any ... ASAE and reap all available member benefits.   ... new organizational membership options will allow organizations of any ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... February 10, 2016 , ... Benchmark Research, a ... promotion of two long-standing principal investigators (PI) to the roles of Chief Medical ... Development. , Dr. Laurence Chu, a Benchmark Research PI in the Austin office, ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... February 10, 2016 , ... ... on Microsoft Azure. On Azure, Arvados provides capabilities for managing and processing genomic ... for Microsoft Azure from major institutions collecting and analyzing genomic data,” said Adam ...
Breaking Biology Technology: