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Scientists unlock a 'microbial Pompeii'
Date:2/23/2014

his wealth of data required overcoming the formidable bioinformatics challenge of sorting and identifying millions of genetic sequences like puzzle pieces in order to reconstruct the complex biology of the ancient oral microbiome.

"Dental calculus is a window into the past and may well turn out to be one of the best-preserved records of human-associated microbes," says Professor Christian von Mering, an author of the study and Group Director at the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, which performed the bioinformatics analysis Professor Matthew Collins, of the University of York, said: "We knew that calculus preserved microscopic particles of food and other debris but the level of preservation of biomolecules is remarkable. A microbiome entombed and preserved in a mineral matrix, a microbial Pompeii."

Dr Warinner, of the University of Zurich and the University of Oklahoma, added: "Dental calculus acts both as a long-term reservoir of the oral microbiome and as a trap for dietary and environmental debris. This allows us to investigate health and disease, as well as reconstruct aspects of an individual's life history and activities. Never before have we been able to retrieve so much information from one small sample."

The study has wide reaching implications for understanding the evolution of the human oral microbiome and the origins of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease causes distinctive proteomic changes in the dentition and is characterized by chronic inflammation resulting in tooth and bone loss. Dr. Enrico Cappellini of the University of Copenhagen, a senior author of the study, describes the dental calculus analyzed in this study as a kind of "battlefield archaeological site, just at the molecular scale."

Today, moderate to severe periodontal disease affects more than 10% of the world's population and is linked to diverse systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, pulmonary disease, and type II
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Contact: David Garner
david.garner@york.ac.uk
44-077-953-15029
University of York
Source:Eurekalert

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