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Scientists find a new mechanism underlying depression
Date:1/8/2014

The World health Organization calls depression "the leading cause of disability worldwide," causing more years of disability than cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases combined. In any given year, 5-7% of the world's population experiences a major depressive episode, and one in six people will at some point suffer from the disease.

Despite recent progress in understanding depression, scientists still don't understand the biological mechanisms behind it well enough to deliver effective prevention and therapy. One possible reason is that almost all research focuses on the brain's neurons, while the involvement of other brain cells has not been thoroughly examined.

Now researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have shown that changes in one type of non-neuronal brain cells, called microglia, underlie the depressive symptoms brought on by exposure to chronic stress. In experiments with animals, the researchers were able to demonstrate that compounds that alter the functioning of microglia can serve as novel and efficient antidepressant drugs.

The findings were published in Molecular Psychiatry, the premier scientific journal in psychiatry and one of the leading journals in medicine and the neurosciences. (See Dynamic microglial alterations underlie stress-induced depressive-like behavior and suppressed neurogenesis).

The research was conducted by Prof. Raz Yirmiya, director of the Hebrew University's Psychoneuroimmunology Laboratory, and his doctoral student Tirzah Kreisel, together with researchers at Prof. Yirmiya's laboratory and at the University of Colorado in Boulder, USA.

The researchers examined the involvement of microglia brain cells in the development of depression following chronic exposure to stress. Comprising roughly 10% of brain cells, microglia are the representatives of the immune system in the brain; but recent studies have shown that these cells are also involv
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Contact: Dov Smith
dovs@savion.huji.ac.il
972-258-82844
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Source:Eurekalert  

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