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Scientists complete first-ever emperor penguin count from space
Date:4/13/2012

There are twice as many emperor penguins in Antarctica than was previously thought, according to a new study released today by an international team of researchers using high-resolution satellite mapping technology. This first-ever count of an entire species from space provides an important benchmark for monitoring the impact of environmental change on the population of this iconic bird.

Scientists from the University of Minnesota Polar Geospatial Center co-authored the research with partners from the British Antarctic Survey. The research is published today in the journal PLoS ONE. In the journal, the scientists describe how they used Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images to estimate the number of penguins at each colony around the coastline of Antarctica. Using a technique known as pan-sharpening to increase the resolution of the satellite imagery, the science teams were able to differentiate between birds, ice, shadow and penguin poo (guano).

They then used ground counts and aerial photography to calibrate the analysis. These birds breed in areas that are very difficult to study because they are remote and often inaccessible with temperatures as low as -58F (-50C).

Lead author and geographer Peter Fretwell at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), which is funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council, said the research findings are groundbreaking.

"We are delighted to be able to locate and identify such a large number of emperor penguins," Fretwell said. "We counted 595,000 birds, which is almost double the previous estimates of 270,000 to 350,000 birds. This is the first comprehensive census of a species taken from space."

On the ice, emperor penguins with their black and white plumage stand out against the snow and colonies are clearly visible on satellite imagery. This allowed the team to analyze 44 emperor penguin colonies around the coast of Antarctica, with seven previously unknown.


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Contact: Matt Hodson
mjhodson@umn.edu
612-625-0552
University of Minnesota
Source:Eurekalert

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