Navigation Links
Scientists complete chromosome-based draft of the wheat genome
Date:7/17/2014

MANHATTAN, Kansas Several Kansas State University researchers were essential in helping scientists assemble a draft of a genetic blueprint of bread wheat, also known as common wheat. The food plant is grown on more than 531 million acres around the world and produces nearly 700 million tons of food each year.

The International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, which also includes faculty at Kansas State University, recently published a chromosome-based draft sequence of wheat's genetic code, which is called a genome. "A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat genome" is one of four papers about the wheat genome that appear in the journal Science.

The genetic blueprint is an invaluable resource to plant science researchers and breeders, said Eduard Akhunov, associate professor of plant pathology and a collaborator with the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium.

"For the first time, they have at their disposal a set of tools enabling them to rapidly locate specific genes on individual wheat chromosomes throughout the genome," Akhunov said. "This resource is invaluable for identifying those genes that control complex traits, such as yield, grain quality, disease, pest resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. They will be able to produce a new generation of wheat varieties with higher yields and improved sustainability to meet the demands of a growing world population in a changing environment."

Although a draft, the sequence provides new insight into the plant's structure, organization, evolution and genetic complexity.

"This is a very significant advancement for wheat genetics and breeding community," Akhunov said. "The wheat genome sequence provides a foundation for studying genetic variation and understanding how changes in the genetic code can impact important agronomic traits. In our lab we use this sequence to create a catalog of single base changes in DNA sequence of a worldwide sample of wheat lines to get insights into the evolution and origin of wheat genetic diversity."

Akhunov, Shichen Wang, a programmer and bioinformatics scientist in plant pathology, and Jesse Poland, assistant professor of plant pathology, collaborated with the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium to order genes along the wheat chromosomes.

Other Kansas State University researchers in the department of plant pathology involved include Bikram Gill, university distinguished professor and director of the Wheat Genetics Resource Center, and Bernd Friebe, research professor, who developed genetic material that was essential for obtaining the chromosome-based sequence of the wheat genome.

A second paper in Science details the first reference sequence of chromosome 3B, the largest chromosome in common wheat.

"The wheat genome only has 21 chromosomes, but each chromosome is very big and therefore quite complicated," Akhunov said. "The largest chromosome, 3B, has nearly 800 million letters in its genetic code. This is nearly three times more information than is in the entire rice genome. So trying to sequence this chromosome and this genome end-to-end is an extremely complicated task."

In order to analyze the vast amount of genetic information, researchers used a technique called shotgun sequencing. This divided the wheat genome into chromosomes and then split each chromosome into smaller segments. Chromosomal segments were analyzed by short gene sequences and overlapping sequences were stitched together with computer software.

The chromosome-based daft sequence the critical step before the full wheat genome is sequenced, Akhunov said. The sequencing approach developed for the 3B chromosome can now be applied for sequencing the remaining chromosomes in wheat. The consortium estimates the full genome sequence will be available in three years.

The research is funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

"Wheat is a staple source of food for the majority of the world. As the global population continues to rapidly increase, we will need all the tools available to continue producing enough food for all people in light of a changing climate, diminishing land and water resources and changing diets and health expectations," said Sonny Ramaswamy, director of USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture and a former Kansas State University faculty member. "This work will give a boost to researchers looking to identify ways to increase wheat yields."


'/>"/>

Contact: Eduard Akhunov
eakhunov@k-state.edu
785-532-1342
Kansas State University
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Birdsongs automatically decoded by computer scientists
2. NIH scientists identify gene linked to fatal inflammatory disease in children
3. New UK study helps scientists understand melanoma development
4. Scientists launch far-ranging campaign to detail Front Range air pollution
5. SLU scientists hit delete: Removing regions of shape-shifting protein explains how blood clots
6. PNNL scientists win 3 R&D 100 awards for visual display, analytics and energy technologies
7. Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation grants fellowship awards to 16 young scientists
8. Wisconsin scientists find genetic recipe to turn stem cells to blood
9. USC Stem Cell scientists lay a TRAP for disease
10. Virtual finger enables scientists to navigate and analyze complex 3D images
11. Scientists watch photosynthesis in action
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Scientists complete chromosome-based draft of the wheat genome
(Date:6/7/2016)... 7, 2016  Syngrafii Inc. and San Antonio ... that includes integrating Syngrafii,s patented LongPen™ eSignature "Wet" ... collaboration will result in greater convenience for SACU ... while maintaining existing document workflow and compliance requirements. ... Highlights: ...
(Date:6/2/2016)... The Department of Transport Management (DOTM) ... million US Dollar project, for the , Supply ... Enrolment, and IT Infrastructure , to ... implementation of Identity Management Solutions. Numerous renowned international vendors participated ... was selected for the most compliant and innovative ...
(Date:6/2/2016)... 2, 2016 Perimeter Surveillance & ... Systems, Physical Infrastructure, Support & Other Service  ... offers comprehensive analysis of the global Border ... generate revenues of $17.98 billion in 2016. ... a leader in software and hardware technologies for advanced ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:12/2/2016)... ... December 01, 2016 , ... Orthogonal, ... on their recent FDA Class II 510(k) clearance for their flagship medical device, ... commercializing remote cardiac monitoring devices that rely on cloth-based nanosensors. While other companies ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... December 02, 2016 , ... Robots will ... Event on December 3rd, 2016. The event, which is held on the United ... with helping Americans with Disabilities back into the workplace. Suitable Technologies is partnering with ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... -- The immunohistochemistry (IHC) market is projected to ... 7.3% during the forecast period of 2016 to 2021 dominated by ... for the largest share of immunohistochemistry (IHC) market, by end user. ... , , ... spread across 225 pages, profiling 10 companies and supported with 181 ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... ... November 30, 2016 , ... BEI Kimco, a brand of ... flexure design that ensures high alignment accuracy by preventing unwanted shaft rotation. The ... where extreme precision is required, such as in medical equipment, laboratory instrumentation, clean ...
Breaking Biology Technology: